Ch. 8 Public Opinion and Voting vocabulary

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fanofadidas
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298998
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Ch. 8 Public Opinion and Voting vocabulary
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2015-03-24 11:32:25
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US GOVT
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Ch. 8
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  1. Public Opinion
    the views of the citizenry about politics, public issues, and public policies; a complex collection of opinions held by many people on issues in the public area.
  2. public opinion poll
    a survey of the public's opinion on a particular topic at a particular moment.
  3. sample
    in the context of opinion polling, a group of people selected to represent the population being studied.
  4. straw poll
    • a nonscientific poll in which there is no way to ensure that the opinions expressed are representative of the larger population.
    • (ex: interview a couple of people on the street)
  5. biased sample
    a poll sample that does not accurately represent the population.
  6. random sample
    in the context of opinion polling, a sample in which each person within the entire population being polled has an equal chance of being chosen.
  7. sampling error
    in the context of opinion polling, the difference between what the sample results show and what the true results would have been had everybody in the relevant population been interviewed.
  8. push poll
    a campaign tactic used to feed false or misleading information to potential voters, under the guise of taking an opinion poll, with the intent to "push" voters away from one candidate and toward another.
  9. political socialization
    the learning process through which most people acquire their political attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and knowledge.
  10. agents of political socialization
    people and institutions that influence the political views of others.
  11. media
    newspapers, magazines, television, radio, the internet, and any other printed or electronic means of communication.
  12. peer group
    associates, often close in age to one another; may include friends, classmates, co-workers, club members, or religious group members.
  13. gender gap
    the difference between the percentage of votes cast for a particular candidate by women and the percentage of votes cast for the same candidate by men.
  14. Solid South
    a term used to describe the tendency of the southern states to vote Democratic after the Civil War.
  15. literacy test
    a test given to voters to ensure that they could read and write and thus evaluate political information. This technique was used in many southern states to restrict African American participation in elections.
  16. poll tax
    a fee of several dollars that had to be paid before a person could vote. This device was used in some southern states to discourage African Americans and low-income whites from voting.
  17. grandfather clause
    a clause in a state law that had the effect of restricting voting rights to those whose ancestors  had voted before the 1860s. It was one of the techniques used in the South to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
  18. white primary
    a primary election in which African Americans were prohibited from voting. The practice was banned by the Supreme Court in 1944.
  19. voting-age population
    the number of people residing in the United States who are at least eighteen years old.
  20. vote-eligible population
    the number of people who are actually eligible to vote in an American election.
  21. side note: Literary Digest
    Literary Digest poll predicted Landon would beat Roosevelt in 1936... it was biased. (Only wealthier people could subscribe to the Literary Digest)
  22. Other gaps
    • -race
    • -education
    • -income
    • -age
    • -religion
    • -etc

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