ch 10.txt

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dimeng
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299015
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ch 10.txt
Updated:
2015-03-23 15:35:46
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diane cs111
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diane cs111 ch 10
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  1. What are the three main functions of an operating system?
    • Manage the computer hardware
    • Support application software
    • Establish a user interface
  2. *List and describe the three main tasks involved in the operating system managing computer hardware.
    • CPU performance and utilization
    • Memory allocation and protection
    • Input-output management
  3. List some types of application software that is supported by operating systems.
    • Word processors
    • Electronic spreadsheets
    • Database management
    • Computer graphics and games
  4. *What are two types of user interfaces?
    • Textual, with a command line prompt
    • Graphical, with windows, menus and icons
  5. List and describe four different approaches to processing.
    • 1) Batch processing - non-interactive execution of one or more programs with distinct input and output sessions
    • 2) Time-sharing - Multiple programs executing "simultaneously" via time slices on a single computer (either many users on one computer or one user multitasking)
    • 3) Interactive processing - Execution of a program with additional input from the user and output to the user during execution.
    • 4) Multiprocessing - Multiple CPUs available within the computer system, either across a network or within a single machine (e.g., a supercomputer)
  6. *(CPU Management) List the five states of a process that is being executed by the CPU and describe the transition between the current state and the next state.
    • 1)New process (file, not loaded yet) - OS "admits" process
    • 2)Ready process (loaded into RAM) - OS "dispatches" process -> Running process
    • 3)Waiting process (needs I/O or some event in memory, temporarily can't run) - OS moves process to Ready state when ready again
    • 4)Running process (in RAM, with CPU processing its instructions) - OS starts cleaning up after finished
    • 5)Terminated process (finished executing, must mark its memory as free)
  7. Describe three common scheduling options for OS scheduling CPU.
    • 1) First-come first-served - obvious. Disadvantage: smaller jobs may have to wait an inordinate amount of time.
    • 2) Shortest job first - obvious. Disadvantage: large jobs must wait until everything else is finished before starting.
    • 3) Round Robin - time slices. Processes constantly interrupted when their slices expire.
  8. List and describe two common resource allocation problems.
    • 1) Mutual exclusion - when two processes require access to the same nonshareable resource at the same time they cannot both be accomodated. (e.g. - producer / consumer)
    • 2) Deadlock - when two processes are simultaneously blocking each other's progress then neither may be able to proceed. (e.g. - flash drive & DVD)

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