Endocrine Disruptors

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Author:
excalibolg
ID:
299035
Filename:
Endocrine Disruptors
Updated:
2015-03-23 20:34:29
Tags:
endocrinology
Folders:
Biochemistry
Description:
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  1. EDC - Definition
    •Any exogenous chemicals that interferes with the production, release, transport, elimination of natural hormones responsible for the maintenace of homeostasis and regulation of developmental processes.

    •Stimulate or inhibit the endocrine system causing over or under production of natural hormones

    • •The interaction with the functions 
    • of estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones have bee the most highly studied
  2. Endocrine disruptors - Function
    •Serving as steroid receptor ligands

    • •Activate a receptor – act
    • as a hormone, receptors respond at inappropriate times

    •Block a receptor by competing with other hormone

    •Modifying the number of hormone receptors in a cell

    •Modifying steroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes

    •Perturbing hypothalamic pituitary release of trophic hormones
  3. DES  - diethylstilbesterol
    • •morning after pill or during pregnancy to prevent women from having a miscarriage or giving birth
    • too early.



    •Estrogenic effects



    • •DES daugthers:
    • increased risk for
    • infertility, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancies



    • •DES sons: evidence of
    • increased risk:

    •Undescended testicles

    •Poorer sperm quality
  4. DDT
    dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
    • •The breakdown product of DDT, DDE is
    • able to act
    • as an
    • anti-androgen by blocking the testosterone receptor and
    • producing effects that are phenotypically similar to those caused by estrogens



    •Reproductive abnormalities, particularly in wildlife species:



    • •The
    • American alligator  -reproductive
    • abnormalities



    •Birds –eggshell thinning and resulted in sever

    • population decline
  5. Tributyltin (TBT)
    •Used as anti-foulant for boats



    • •Prevent
    • the growth of marine organisms on the hulls of large ships





    • •TBT
    • also causes imposex (development of male characteristics in
    • females) in marine gastropods and is probably responsible for
    • reductions in their populations in zones with important
    • ship traffic.
  6. Bisphenol
    A
    • •Plastics
    • ingredient – production of polycarbonate plastics (plastic bottles, food
    • storage containers, CDs) and epoxy resins





    • •Estrogenic
    • effect



    • •Obesity,
    • diabetes

    • •Development
    • of prostate, breast and uterine cancer



    • •2011
    • EU committee banned
    • sale of polycarbonate

    • baby bottles containing
    • bisphenol
    • A

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