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-incomplete stretching of fibers
-no loss of function, no sign of instability
GradeI/1st degree sprain (mild)
-partial tear or complete tear of some fibers
-moderate pain and swelling
-some loss of jt function, some loss of jt stability
GradeII/2nd degree (moderate)
-complete tear of ligament
-intense pain, servere swelling
-loss of jt function, jt instability present
GradeIII/3rd degree (rupture)
What combined forces does and ACL injury involve?
- valgus stress
- IR of tibia
- may be combined with knee hyperextension while foot planted
75% of knee injuries report the tiad of:
- acute blow or twisting or cutting
- immediate effusion of the knee
- inability to continue to play
= blows ACL
ACL injuries occur via what type of mechanism?
non-contact, declaration, closed chain