criminolgy 3RD social process

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Mazie
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299081
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criminolgy 3RD social process
Updated:
2015-03-25 14:48:34
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social process theory
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  1. 1. In labeling theory, the idea re-integrative shaming is proposed by Erving
    Goffman.

    T  F
    F

    1. change “Erving Goffman” to “John Braithwaite”
  2. 2.
    Compared to unskilled workers, people doing professional jobs (such as computer
    engineers, attorneys, medical doctors, astronauts...) are less likely
    to be labeled as delinquents.

    T  F
    T
  3. 3.
    From the perspective of labeling theory, residents of trailer parks (or slum
    areas)are more likely to be viewed by the police as
    troublemakers/criminals than those who live in, say, the River Ranch of
    Lafayette.

    T  F
    T
  4. 4. From
    the perspective of labeling theory, middle-aged males are more likely to be labeled
    than teenagers/young adults.

    T  F
    F

    4. change “more” to “less”
  5. 5.
    In America
    and many other countries, some young people will commit delinquent acts to solve
    (immediate) problems. Such acts will be classified by labeling theorists as primary
    deviance if the identities of perpetrators become known to authority
    figures.

     T  F
    F

    5. change “primary” to “secondary”
  6. 6.
    Labeling theorists emphasize that no human behavior is inherently delinquent.
    Some behaviors are considered to be delinquent because powerful people
    (especially, the authorities) define them to be so.

    T  F
    T
  7. 7.
    Suppose both the President of the United States and an employee of a
    small company get involved in extra-marital affairs. In this case, the U.S.
    President is more likely to be labeled as womanizer (hint: the media are more
    likely to report “unique” cases involved by celebrities).

    T F
    T
  8. 8.
    Comparatively, labels imposed by peer groups appear to be much more powerful than
    those imposed by school administrators.

    T  F
    F

    8. change “much more” to “far less”
  9. 9.
    Although the emergence of discrediting information may interrupt the
    interaction between individuals, delinquents, in certain situations, may reveal
    that information on purpose in order to gain someone’s cooperation/conformity.




    T  F
    T
  10. 10.
    According to dramaturgical analysis, only rich people (like Hollywood
    superstars) will get involved in the practice of impression management.

    T  F
    F

    • 10. change “only rich people” to “all social members”;
    • delete (like Hollywood superstars)
  11. 11.
    The idea of social tagging is advanced by Richard Quinney.

    T  F
    F

    11. change “Richard Quinney” to “ Frank Tannenbaum”
  12. 12.
    According to Lemert, behaviors classified as primary deviance
    usually are serious offenses (i.e., such offenses can be kept
    secret for a long period of time).

    T  F
    F


    12. change “serious” to “petty”
  13. 13.
    In America,
    Latinos seem to be the racial group most likely to experience the
    process of labeling (or stigmatization).

    T F
    F

    13. change “Latinos” to “Blacks”
  14. 14.
    For labeling theorists, the initial causes of crime/delinquency
    are very
    important because such factors can motivate someone to repeat the same
    criminal behavior.

    T F
    F

    14. change “initial causes ” to “societal responses”
  15. 15.
    Partially due to the stereotype of model minority, Asian
    Americans (especially Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans)
    appear to be the minority groups least frequently to be labeled. 

    T F
    T
  16. 16.
    Generally speaking, young African Americans (16 to 24 years old) are more
    likely to be labeled as criminals/deviants than their White American
    counterparts

    T  F
    T
  17. 17.
    The concept of discrediting information is proposed by Edwin
    Lemert.

    T  F
    F

    • 17. change “Edwin Lemert” to
    • “Erving Goffman”
  18. 18.
    Sociologically, there is a linkage between functionalism and labeling
    theory.

    T F
    F

    • 18. change “functionalism” to
    • “symbolic interactionism”
  19. 19.
    Braithwaite argues that stigmatic shaming imposed by law
    enforcement authorities can effectively reduce delinquency/crime.
    T F
    F

    • 19. chage “stigmatic” to
    • “re-integrative”
  20. 20.
    Labeling theory strongly implies that law enforcement authorities will spend
    proportionate resources on all social problems.

    T F
    F

    20. change “proportionate” to “disproportionate”
  21. 21.
    The idea of master status is suggested by Edwin Lemert.

    T F
    F

    21. change “Edwin Lemert” to “Howard Becker”
  22. 22.
    The idea of front stage is advanced by Howard Becker.

    T F
    F

    22. change “Howard Becker” to “Erving Goffman”
  23. 23.
    Although social institutions can regulate our behaviors, they do NOT
    have the same power in labeling people (i.e., some social institutions are more
    powerful than others).

    T F
    T
  24. 24.
    From the perspective of labeling theory, treason is a pure
    deviance.

     T  F
    T
  25. 25.
    From the perspective of labeling theory, piratical act is a pure
    deviance.

    T F
    T
  26. 26.
    In America,
    which of the following is most likely to be labeled (by mainstream society) as real
    delinquents.

     

    a. people with spouse abuse records

    b. people with eating disorder records

    c. Hustler subscribers

    d. people with child molestation records

    e. check forgers
    D
  27. 27.
    When law enforcement authorities take actions to handle a certain delinquent
    situation, then these actions can be seen as a process of ________.

     

    a. 
    engagement

    b. 
    endeavor

    c. 
    escalation

    d. 
    enhancement

    e. 
    dichotomy
    C
  28. 28.
    Members of Non-orthodox churches (like the Jehovah’s Witness) usually will be labeled as

     

    a. 
    career criminals

    b. 
    cult followers

    c. 
    idiots 

    d. 
    lunatics
    E.
    perverts
    B
  29. 29.The
    concept stigmatization is proposed by _______.

     

    a. 
    George Mead

    b. 
    Howard Becker

    c. 
    Herbert Blumer

    d. 
    Erving Goffman

    e. 
    Frank Tannenbaum
    D
  30. 30.
    From the angle of visibility, which of the following is least
    likely to be labeled?

     

    a. 
    rapist

    b. 
    robber

    c. 
    suicide
    bomber 

    d. 
    gang member

    e. 
    arsonist
    A
  31. 31.
    According to labeling theory, labeled people are more likely to engage in
    crimes like ________.

     

    a. 
    arson

    b. 
    rape

    c. 
    aggravated
    assault

    d. 
    drug   trafficking

    e. 
    hard to
    predict/it depends
    E
  32. 32.
    Who proposes the idea of moral enterprise?

     






    a. 
    T. Parsons

    b. 
    Robert Merton

    c. 
    Howard Becker

    d. 
    Robert Agnew

    e. 
    Cloward and Ohlin
    C
  33. 33.
    Sociologically, moral enterprise usually has a close relationship
    with ________.

     

    a. 
    social movements

    b. 
    demonstration

    c. 
    urban riot

    d. 
    divorce

    e. 
    immigration
    A
  34. 34.
    Howard Becker proposes a taxonomy of delinquents. Which of the following is one
    of them?

     

    a. 
    pure deviants

    b. 
    impressive
    deviants

    c. 
    socialized
    deviants

    d. 
    abusive deviants

    e. 
    isolated deviants
    A
  35. 35.
    The three typologies of deviance-- primary deviance, secondary deviance, and
    tertiary deviance-- are suggested by ________.

     

    a. 
    Howard Becker

    b. 
    Edwin Sutherland

    c. 
    George   Mead

    d. 
    Charles H. Cooley


    e. 
    Edwin Lemert
    E
  36. 36.
    In theory, which of the following is more likely to be labeled as delinquents
    by non-Hispanic White police? (hint: consider the variable social
    distance)

     

    a. 
    Russian Americans


    b. 
    Canadian
    Americans

    c. 
    Turkish Americans


    d. 
    Jewish Americans

    e. 
    German Americans
    C
  37. 37.
    In theory, which of the following is more likely to face the situation of looping?

     

    a. people with venereal disease records

    b. people with sexual assault records 

    c. people with shoplifting records 

    d. people with truancy records

    e. people with fetishism records
    B
  38. 38.
    Degradation ceremonies usually are initiated by ________.

     

    a. 
    peer group

    b. 
    the court

    c. 
    parents

    d. 
    the church

    e. 
    all of the above
    B
  39. 39.
    According to Braithwaite, re-integrative shaming is more likely
    to become a social practice in ________ societies.

     






    a. 
    agricultural

    b. 
    rich

    c. 
    isolated

    d. 
    open

    e. 
    unstable
    D
  40. 40.
    According to Braithwaite, stigmatic shaming is more likely to
    become a social practice in ________ societies.

     

    a. 
    agricultural

    b. 
    rich

    c. 
    isolated/conservative


    d. 
    open

    e. 
    highly
    industrialized
    C
  41. 41.
    According to Braithwaite, re-integrative shaming is more likely
    to reduce crime because it reminds people to concentrate on________.

     

    a. the racial background of offenders

    b. offenders=
    socioeconomic statuses

    c. the distribution of educational opportunities

    d. the structural causes of crime

    e. the government=s
    criminal justice policy
    D
  42. 42.
    Based upon the basic assumptions of labeling theory, we can infer that, after
    the 9-11 incident, the authorities will focus on the issue of ________.

     

    a. 
    rape

    b. 
    terrorism/national
    security

    c. 
    arm control

    d. 
    murder

    e. 
    arson
    B
  43. 43.
    Labeling theorists generally consider ________ as the linchpin of
    the process of criminalization.

     

    a. 
    the church

    b. 
    prison

    c. 
    school

    d. 
    community
    organization

    e. 
    the media
    E
  44. 44.
    ________ argues that the process of labeling will amplify deviance.

     

    a. 
    Erving Goffman

    b. 
    Leslie Wilkins

    c. 
    Howard Becker

    d. 
    Edwin Sutherland

    e. 
    Harold Garfinkel
    B

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