Psych Test 2F: Learning

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Author:
DesLee26
ID:
299177
Filename:
Psych Test 2F: Learning
Updated:
2015-03-25 16:29:54
Tags:
Psych
Folders:
PsychTestTwo
Description:
Test Two
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  1. Classical Conditioning

    Who?
    How?
    What did he find? 
    Ivan Pavlov

    • studied digestion i dogs in a lab setting; bell rings--> automatic salivation from food.
    • Eventually, they salivated from the bell--> it was a learned action
  2. Reflex
    unlearned behavior; natural
  3. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    something that automatically causes a response with no training
  4. unconditioned response
    an automatic reflex; unlearned
  5. conditioned stimulus
    previously neutral stimulus that now causes a conditioned response
  6. conditioned response
    learned reaction to CS that occurs because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS
  7. What are the shortcuts for determining UCS, UCR, CS, NS, and CR?
    • UCR=CR
    • NS=CS
  8. Use Pavlov's example to assign each of the terms.
    • Food= UCS
    • drooling= UCR

    • neutral= bell
    • bell=CS

    drooling= CR
  9. Stimulus generalization
    learned response to stimuli that are like the original conditioend stimuli

    ex: Little Albert and white rats, etc.
  10. Stimulus discrimination
    learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli

    ex: Pavlov's dogs only salivated to doorbell
  11. Extinctio
    gradual weakining or suppression of a precisely conditioned response

    ex: Pavlov rang bell with no food--> dog's salivation ceases
  12. Operant Conditioning
    learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences

    reinforcement and punishment
  13. Positive reinforcement
    • add something to icnrease the behavior
    • ex: stickers
  14. negative reinforcement
    remove something (unpleasant) to increase the behavior
  15. positive punishment
    adding something to decrease behavior

    ex: spankiong
  16. negative punishment
    take away something pleasant to decrease behavior (ex: privileges, time out)
  17. Positive
    add
  18. negative
    take away
  19. reinforcment
    increase
  20. punishment
    decrease
  21. Shaping
    rewarding people for getting closer tot heir goal

    sucessive goals are rewarded

    ex: bed making
  22. Who was the creator of insight? How?
    Wolfgang Kohler

    he examined chimps during WWI and noticed that chimps have insight; they sit and think about a situation and then attempt
  23. insight
    a sudden udnerstanding of a situation; mental trial and error
  24. Latent learning
    hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs

    you could learn things and not demonstrate it until weeks or months down the line
  25. Observational learning
    watching and modeling the behavior
  26. Vicarious learning
    • 1) watch somebody do something
    • 2) look at the consequences
    • 3) make a decision whether to do it or not to do it

    ex: Bobo doll
  27. Learned helplessness
    Martin Saligman

    the feelign that you have no control of the environment no matter what you doq
  28. Self-efficacy
    the belief that you can accomplish something

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