Psych Test 2G: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

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Psych Test 2G: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
2015-03-25 16:56:57
Test Two
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  1. mental sets
    persisting in using the same solution to solve the probelm even though there is an easier way
  2. functional fixedness
    tendency to think of an object functioning only in one way
  3. anchoring heuristic
    lock in to your first impression even though you know it is wrong
  4. heuristic=
  5. When is the only time anchoring heuristic is gone?
    It only shifts when you spend time with people and get to know them
  6. availability heuristic
    misjudged how likely an event it; 

    incorrect conclusion that something is common when not
  7. Representative heuristic
    erroneously judging something as part of the group

    ex: killer grandma who is "too adorable to kill" because she's a grandma
  8. Benjamin Whorf
    Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Whorfian hypothesis) 

    - language impacts thoughts; you can only talk about things you have language for
  9. Stages of Language Development
    • 1) prelinguistic: babbling and cooing
    • 2) linguistic: one word speech and then telegraphic speech (two words)
    • --> overextension: broad use of words (calling all men daddy)
    • --> overgeneralize: applying basic rules of grammer

    Age five, they have the grammar down
  10. Theories of Language Development
    • nature: innate ability
    • nurture: reinforcement, imitation, learning
  11. What is the actual theory of language development?

    nature: gnetic unraveling in which you hit the milestones

    nurture: human interactions is very important
  12. Noam Chomsky
    Language Acquisition Device: device built into brain that prepares them for language; built into you ; goes away when taught the right way
  13. Intelligence as a single ability
    in the early years of intelligence testing, it was viewed as innate

    Spearman came up with the G theory: general intelligence level; this theory was incredibly school related (like a standardized test)
  14. Intelligence as Multiple abilities
    fluid and crystallized intelligence

    fluid: ability to reason, problem solve, and multitask (this decreases with age)

    crystallized: facts adn knowledge (how much information you know; grows with age)
  15. Gardner's theory had eight intelligences. What are they?
    • logical/ mathematical: math and thinking
    • spatial: being able to do mental tasks
    • linguistic: language
    • intrapersonal: self-knowledge and ability to know and understand yourself
    • interpersonal: knowing other people
    • naturalistic: adapting to different environments
    • bodily/kinesthetic: balance, hand eye coordination, athleticism
    • musical: anything creative
  16. The intelligence controversy
    1) mentally regarded is a bad term to use. It is intellectual disabilities

    2) People first language:
    the disorder should never come before the person; it is people first
  17. Intellectual disability
    anyone with IQ less than 70 with severe impairments to daily functioning
  18. What causes mental retardation??

    genetic: Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  19. People with Down Syndrome have what characteristics?
    pudgy in nature, larger ears, smaller neck, bones different
  20. Savant syndrome
    intellectually disabled with incredible skills in something
  21. Mainstreaming
    taking children with special needs and placing them into the normal population
  22. Pros of mainstreaming
    • feel accepted
    • children are exposed to children with disabilities and accept them
  23. Cons of mainstreaming

    individual with disability can impact others' learning experience