Ch. 9 Campaigns and Elections Vocabulary

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Ch. 9 Campaigns and Elections Vocabulary
2015-03-25 16:58:27
Ch. 9
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  1. Australian ballot
    a secret ballot that is prepared, distributed, and counted by government officials at public expense; used by all states in the United States since 1888.
  2. campaign strategy
    the comprehensive plan for winning an election developed by a candidate and his or her advisers. The strategy includes the candidate's position on issues, slogan, advertising plan, press events, personal appearances, and other aspects of the campaign.
  3. caucus
    a meeting held to choose political candidates or delegates
  4. closed primary
    a primary in which only party members can vote to choose that party's candidates.
  5. Credentials Committee
    a committee of each national political party that evaluates the claims of national party convention delegates to be the legitimate representatives of their states.
  6. delegate
    a person selected to represent the people of one geographic area at a party convention.
  7. direct primary
    an election held within each of the two major parties-- Democratic and Republican -- to choose the party's candidates for the general election. Voters choose the candidate directly, rather than through delegates.
  8. elector
    a member of the electoral college.
  9. electoral college
    The group of electors who are selected by the voters in each state to elect officially the president and vice president. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of that state's representatives in both chambers of Congress.
  10. general election
    a regularly scheduled election to choose the U.S. president, vice president, and senators and representatives in Congress. General elections are held in even-numbered years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
  11. independent expenditure
    an expenditure for activities that are independent from (not coordinated with) those of a political candidate or a political party.
  12. nominating convention
    an official meeting of a political party to choose its candidates. Nominating conventions at the state and local levels also select delegates to represent the citizens of their geographic areas at a higher-level party convention.
  13. open primary
    a primary in which voters can vote for a party's candidates regardless of whether they belong to the party.
  14. opposition research
    the attempt to learn damaging information about an opponent in a political campaign.
  15. political consultant
    a professional political adviser who, for a fee, works on an area of a candidate's campaign. Political consultants include campaign managers, pollsters, media advisers, and "get out the vote" organizers.
  16. poll watcher
    a representative from one of the political parties who is allowed to monitor a polling place to make sure that the election is run fairly and that fraud doesn't occur.
  17. primary election
    an election in which voters choose the candidates of their party, who will then run in the general election.
  18. soft money
    Campaign contributions not regulated by federal law, such as some contributions that are made to political parties instead of to particular candidates.
  19. special election
    an election that is held at the state or local event when the voters must decide an issue before the next general election or when vacancies occur by reason of death or resignation.
  20. winner-take-all system
    a system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins. In contrast, proportional systems allocate votes to multiple winners.