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T or F: gustation and olfaction are examples of chemoreception.
What is the outermost layer of the eye?
Scalera: tough dense CT
Where in the eye does Glaucoma effect?
Canal of schlemm: prevents proper drainage.
Where in the eye is the area of most acute vision? What components does it mainly consist of?
Fovea centralis: mainly cones
What is the function of horizontal cells?
Helps integrate and regulate input from multile photoreceptor cells, and allows the eyes to adjust well under both bright and dim light conditions
What are the function of bipolar cells?
Transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. They also accept synases from horizontal cells
What is the function of ganglion cells? 3 parts
- 1. Receives visual information from photoreceptors
- 2. The only cells that ceate action potentials
- 3. The OPTIC disc is the blind spot of the eye
1. Is it monochrome? yes or no?
3. Responds more to dim or bright light?
4. Higher or lower acuity?
- 1. Monochrome
- 2. Located in the periphery of retina
- 3. Respond more to dim light
- 4. Lower acuity
1. Monochrome? yes or no?
3. Responds more to bright or dim light?
4. Higher or lower acuity?
- 1. Detects different colors
- 2. Located in the center of the retina
- 3. bright
- 4. Higher acuity
In the dark, how does the cell voltage raise to -40mV?
In dark, cGMP opens sodium channels, sodium then enters the cell, depolarizing it and making it more positive.
What is the light pathway? 8 steps
- 1. Light
- 2. Into Cis retinal
- 3. > trans retinal
- 4. TR activates opsin
- 5. Opsin activates transducin
- 6. Transducin turns on PDE
- 7. PDE breaks down cGMP and sodium channels close
- 8. Voltage lowers
What activates Transducin and what does transducin turn on?
- Opsin triggers Transducin, which turns on PDE.
T or F: Kincocilium is a mechano receptor
What does the ceruminous gland produce?
What is the structure and function of the auditory tube (estacian tube)?
A tube in the middle ear that goes to the back of the mouth. It is to help equalize the pressure in your ear.
These structures in your middle ear are three bones that serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth.
What are the 2 muscles in the middle ear and their function?
Tensor typanum & stapedius: these constrict to prevent too much vibrations during very loud sounds
The fluid that fills the space within the membranous labyrinth is called the __a__, and __b__ is the space outside the labyrinth.
The fluid inside the semicircular canals pushes against this when the body moves to help the brain know which direction the body is moving.
Where are the capulas located?
In the semicurcular canals in the inner ear.
This process includes when the body is spinning in circles, pushing the liquid inside the semicircular canal, but not pushing on the capulas to cause dizziness
dynamic equilibrium (rotational acceleration)
Which hair cells determine which way is gravity?
What is linear acceleration?
- When the otoliths push the saccular maculas (hair cells), indicating which way gravity is.
What is the structure that allows fluid in and out of the cochlea? What is the purose of this?
Round window: Thisi s to ensure hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated
What is the function of the basilar membrane? Which 2 areas are significant?
Absorbs different frequencies coming into the system. The top of the cochlea absorbs LOWER frequencies, and the bottom of the cochlea absorbs HIGHER frequencies.
What 2 structures are in the Organ of Corti and their function?
- Inner hai cell: onvert movement into voltage
- Outer hair cells: physically move to adjust tunning properties of the ear.