A&P1_Chapter4.txt

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etombs
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29926
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A&P1_Chapter4.txt
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2010-08-15 09:18:33
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Anatomy Physiology Memmler\'s Human Body Health Disease Tissues Glands Membranes
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Anatomy & Physiology 1: Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease - Chapter 4
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  1. What are Tissues?
    • Tissues are groups of cells
    • – Similar in structure
    • – Characteristic in pattern
    • – Specialized for the performance of specifictasks
  2. Histology
    The study of tissues - Histo means tissue
  3. Epithelial tissue
    • • Covers surfaces
    • • Lines cavities
    • • Forms glands
  4. Connective tissue
    • Supports and forms the framework of all parts of thebody
  5. Muscle tissue
    • • Contracts
    • • Produces movement
  6. Nervous tissue
    • Conducts nerve impulses
  7. What is the Function of Epithelium
    • • Forms a protective covering for the body
    • • Main tissue of skin’s outer layer
    • • Forms membranes and ducts
    • • Lines body cavities and hollow organs
  8. What is the structure of Epithilium
    • • Tightly packed to protect underlying tissue or toform barriers
    • • Repairs itself quickly
    • • Can become stronger if subjected to wear & tear
    • – i.e. calluses in skin
  9. Epithelial Cell Structure - 3 different shapes
    • • Squamous - flat
    • • Cuboidal - square
    • • Columnar - long and narrow
  10. Epithelial Cell Structure - 3 Different layers
    • • Simple – single layer
    • • Stratified – many layers
    • • Pseudostratified – staggered, so appear to be multilayered but are not
  11. Transitional epithelium
    Capable of great expansion but returns to original size - bladder
  12. Special Functions of Epithelial Tissue
    • 1. Produce secretions
    • • Digestive juices
    • • Sweat
    • • Goblet Cells - epithelial cells in respiratory & digestive tract that produce mucus
    • 2. Protect by trapping particles
    • • Secrete mucus
    • • Cilia projections trap particles
    • 3. Glands – an organ specialized to produce a substance that is sent out to other parts of the body
    • • Manufactures secretions from materials removed from blood
  13. Describe the Exocrine Gland
    • • Have tubes or ducts to carry secretions away from glands
    • • Effective in a limited area near the source
    • • Structure
    • • Single cell – goblet
    • • Multiple cells
    • • Simple tubular - intestine
    • • Branched tubular - stomach
    • • Coiled tubular - skin
    • • Simple saclike - skin
    • • Compound formation of tubes and sacs – mouth

    • Some Examples
    • • Gastrointestinal glands secrete digestive juices
    • • Sebaceous glands in skin produce oil
    • • Lacrimal glands produce tears
  14. Decsribe the Endocrine Gland
    • • Ductless glands that secrete directly into the blood
    • • Hormones have effects on specific target tissues
    • • Structure – an extensive network of capillaries

    • Examples
    • • Pituitary
    • • Thyroid
    • • Adrenal
  15. Function & Structure of Connective Tissue (overview)
    • Function
    • • Supporting fabric of all parts of the body
    • • Most extensive and widely distributed tissue of the body

    • Structure
    • • Matrix - large amounts of nonliving material between cells
    • • Fibers – generally give matrix some structure
  16. Structure of Connective Tissue Classifications
    • Classified according to composition of the intracellular matrix
    • • Liquid connective tissue
    • • Blood & lymph
    • • Cells suspended in fluid matrix

    • • Soft connective tissue
    • • Adipose and areolar tissue
    • • Cells loosely held together with semi-liquid matrix

    • • Fibrous connective tissue
    • • Ligaments, tendons, capsules
    • • Cells held together with densely packed fibrous matrix

    • • Hard connective tissue
    • • Bone or cartilage
    • • Cells held together with a hardened matrix that contains minerals
  17. Name the two Soft Connective Tissue types
    2 types

    • • Areolar (loose) Tissue
    • • Most common type of connective tissue in the body
    • • Intercellular matrix is jelly-like
    • - Examples
    • • Membranes around vessels & organs
    • • Between muscles
    • • Under skin

    • • Adipose Tissue
    • • Fatty tissue for storing energy and providing protective padding
    • • Cells store fat
  18. What are Fibroblasts
    cells that produce fibrous connective tissue
  19. Describe Fibrous Connective Tissue
    • Structure -very dense with large numbers of fibers
    • • Collagen is most common fiber
    • • Elastin fibers allow tissue to stretch and return to original length
    • • Vocal cords
    • • Arterial walls

    • Function – cover various organs
    • • Capsules – very strong coverings for organs
    • • Kidneys
    • • All fibers arranged in same direction to allow for pulling in one direction
    • • Tendons
    • • Ligaments
    • • Fibroblasts – cells that produce fibrous connective tissue
  20. Collagen
    • • The Body’s Scaffolding
    • • Most abundant protein in body
    • • 25% of total protein
    • • 19 types of collagen
    • • Collagen fibers give intercellular matrix both strength and flexibility
    • • Stronger than steel fibers of same size
  21. Hard Connective Tissue - Cartilage
    • Structure
    • • strong & flexible
    • Function
    • • Structural material
    • • Reinforcement
    • • Shock absorber
    • • Surface that reduces friction
  22. Cartilage - 3 types
    • Hyaline cartilage – aka gristle
    • • End of long bones
    • • Tip of nose

    • • Fibrocartilage – not elastic
    • • Between spinal bones and pelvic bones

    • • Elastic cartilage – can spring back into original shape
    • • Outer ear
  23. Chondrocytes
    cells that produce cartilage
  24. Hard Connective Tissue
    • Bone aka osseous tissue
    • • Structure - connective tissue with intercellular matrix hardened by minerals
    • • Osteocytes – bone cells
    • • Blood vessels, nerves in intercellular matrix
    • • Bone marrow
    • • Function
    • • Support
    • • Produce red blood cells
  25. Osteoblasts
    cells that form bone
  26. Muscle Tissue
    • • Function
    • • Produce movement through contraction of its cells
    • • Structure - cells are long thread-like fibers
    • • Skeletal muscle
    • • Cardiac muscle
    • • Smooth muscle
    • • After injury
    • • repairs itself only with difficulty
    • • Often replaced with scartissue
  27. 3 Types of Muscle Tissue
    • 1. Skeletal Muscle
    • • Voluntary – can consciously contract skeletal muscle
    • • Function - moves the body
    • • Structure –
    • • Very large cells
    • • More than one nucleus
    • • Striated (striped) pattern

    • 2. Cardiac Muscle
    • • Involuntary – contracts without conscious thought
    • • Function – produces regular contractions, causing the heart to pump blood
    • • Structure –
    • • Cells are branched and interwoven
    • • Membranes between cells also act to interconnect cells

    • 3. Smooth Muscle
    • • Involuntary
    • • Function contract to produce movement of fluids or substances
    • • Walls of hollow organs and vessles
  28. Nervous Tissue function and structure
    • • Function – control and communications
    • • Brain – control center of body
    • • Spinal Cord – information superhighway
    • • Nerves – direct communication between brain and body
    • • Structure
    • • Neuron – nerve cell
    • • Neuroglia – support cell
  29. Neurons
    • Nerve cell
    • • Cell Body – transmits nerve impulses
    • • Dendrite – branched tail that receives impulses for cell body
    • • Axon – single tail that sends impulses away from cell body
    • • Can be several feet long
    • • Myelin – coating that Insulates axon
  30. Neuroglia
    • nerve support cell
    • • Protect nerves from harmful substances
    • • Remove foreign material & debris
    • • Form the myelin insulation
  31. Membranes function ans structure
    • Function
    • • Coverings
    • • Dividers
    • • Linings
    • • To Anchor

    • Structure
    • • Epithelial membranes - layered
    • • Serous membranes
    • • Mucous membranes
    • • Cutaneous membranes - skin
    • • Connective tissue membranes
    • • Synovial membranes
    • • Meninges
    • • Superficial fascia
    • • Deep fascia
    • • Fibrous pericardium
    • • Periosteum
    • • Perichondrium
  32. Epithelial Membranes – Structure
    • Layered
    • • Outer epithelial layer
    • • Strengthened by connective tissue layer and sometimes smooth muscle layer
    • Closely packed cells
    • • Manufacture secretions
    • • Protect deeper layers from invasion
  33. Serous Membranes aka Mesothelium
    • Structure
    • • Layered - One layer lines the walls of a body cavity and then it folds in on itself to line the outermost layer of the organ
    • • Although in 2 layers, the membrane is continuous
    • • Parietal layer – attaches to wall of body cavity
    • • Visceral layer – attaches to organ
    • • Does not connect with the outside of the body Function
    • • Secretes a thin watery fluid that decreases friction on organs during movement

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