Research Exam 3
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larger variables you have
the bigger the sample size should be

Types of Quantitative Studies
 number of variables
 measurement sensitivity
 data analysis techniques

measurement senstivity
 language you don't know
 measurement sensitivity is low

more advanced the technique
the larger sample size you need

n30: sample size
minimum in quantitative research

Experimental Studies
Random Assignment: intervention A and B to measure outcomes

experimental studies example
pressure ulcers: test different in wound development to see if significant

If you can't randomly assign subjects to intervention A or B
can't do experimental design,
so choose quasi experimental

Anything to affects A or B
extraneous variable

Variable A to B
directionality problem

comparison group recieves:
 no intervention at all
 a placebo intervention
 a usual care intervention
 a different intervention
 same intervention but of different

Statistical perspective
 Basic concepts:
 T test : p Value
confidence intervals

t test
test the different between 2 means

anova
tests the difference between 3 or more

chisquare
tests the difference with nominal and ordinal level data


p<0.05
significant difference

p>0.05
not a greater difference

p less than
difference likely in the population; reality

p greater than
no difference likely in population

p less
means truly differnet

p greater
means are expected

stat. vs. clinical significance
are different

clinical significance
 every study from the beginning
 research question has significance

disease that happens once in 1000 cases
but it happens personally to yourself..
clinical significance!

Absolute benefit improvement and numbers needed to treat
treatment effect measures