Biological Psyc 1
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Biological Psyc 1
What is biological psychology?
- the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behaviour and experience
What is a physiological explanation?
- it relates a behaviour to the activity of the brain and other organs
ex. the chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity and the routes by which brain activity ultimately controls the contractions of muscles
What is an ontogentic explanation?
- the development of a structure or a behaviour
ex. it traces the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and the interations among these influences in producing behavioural tendencies
What is an evolutionary explanation?
- a structure or a behaviour in terms of evolutionary history
ex. when people become frightened, they sometimes get goose bumps, in our ancestors this would cause their hairs to stand up making them look bigger and more intimidating
What is a functional explanation?
- describes why a structure or behaviour evolved as it did
ex. within a small population, such as an isolated community, a gene can spread by accident through genetic drift
What is dualism?
- the belief that mind and body are different kinds of substances (thought substance and physical substance) that exist independently but somehow interact
What is the mind-brain problem?
Understanding the relationship between the mind and the brain
What is monism? and what are the three forms of it?
- the belief that the universe consists of only one kind of exsistence
What is materialism?
- a form of monism that views everything that exists as material, or physical
What is mentalism?
- a form of monism that believes only the mind really exsists
What is identity position?
- a form of monism that believes mental processes are the same thing as certain kinds of brain processes by described in different terms
What are the easy questions?
- they pertain to many phenomena that we call consciousness, such as the difference between wakefulness and sleep and the mechanisms that enable us to focus out attention
What are the hard problems?
- the question of why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness
What is solipsism?
- the philosophical position that I alone exist, or I alone am conscious
What is the problem of other minds?
- the difficulty of knowing whether other people (or animals) have conscious experiences
What are genes?
- units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another
What is a chromosome?
- strands of genes
What is an enzyme?
- a biological catalyst that regulates chemical reactions in the body
What is homozygous?
- an individual that has an identical pair of genes on the two chromosomes
What is heterozygous?
- an individual that has an unmatched pair of genes
What are sex-linked genes?
- genes that are located on the sex chromosomes
What are autosomal genes?
- all genes except for sex-linked genes
What is a sex-limited gene?
- is present in both sexes but has an effect limited or almost limited to one sex. The genes become active only under the influence of sex hormones
What is recombination?
- a new combination of genes, some from one parent and some from the other, that yields characteristics not found in either parent
What is heritability?
- an estimate of how much of the variance in some characteristic within some population is due to difference in heredity
What is a multiplier effect?
- if genetic or prenatal influences produce even a small increase in some activity, the early tendency will change the environment in a way that magnifies that tendency
What is Lamarchian evolution?
evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics
What is sociobiology or evolutionary psychology?
- it deals with how social behaviours have evolved
What does the term fitness mean?
- the number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations
What is altruistic behaviour?
- an action that benefits someone other than the actor
What is reciprocal altruism?
- the idea that animals help those who help them in return
What is kin selection?
- selection for a gene because it benefits the individual's relatives
What are minimalists?
- people who agree that some animal research is acceptable but wish it to be minimized and regulated
What are abolitionists?
- people who see no room for comprimise, they maintain that all animals have the same rights as humans