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- Employees embezzlement
- Strangers steal/rob
White Collar Crimes
- Accounting fraud Wire fraud
- Bribery Securities fraud
- Conspiracy Racketeering
- Embezzlement Obstruction of Justice
- False statements Money laundering
- Forgery Mail fraud
- Insider trading Kickbacks
*BULK of ESSAY/ FACT PATTERN
classification is based on the punishment imposed if the person is convicted of the alleged crime.
punishable by a fine or jail sentence of less than one year
Unreasonable search and seizures
protects from unwarranted intrusions on their privacy by requiring the police to obtain a court ordered search warrant.
protects against self-incrimination. protests the accused from being compelled to testify against himself.
no person should be subject for the same offense twice of life or limb.
courts do not allow individuals to be tried twice by the same governmental entity for the same crime based on the same factual situation.
393 & 394
Fifth Amendment provides that before anyone can be tried for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, there must be a presentment or an indictment by a grand jury.
Looks at evidence and makes an inditement (formal charges).
Probable cause- grand jury must find probable cause.
May also subpoena business records.
Makes the verdict
Guilty, Not guilty, and Nolo contendere (no contest)
Unreasonable search and seizures
Fourth Amendment protects individuals and corporations from unreasonable search and seizures. Without a search warrant.
Extenuating circumstances/exigent circumstances- good faith, entering w/o a warrant.
Police officers can search any area you have immediate access to. Sofa, car ect. without a warrant.
Expectation of privacy
- Building inspectors have to provide a search warrant.
- Junk yard not search warrant expected.
- Nursing homes, no search warrant.
- At airports you have no right to privacy.
- Right to remain silent.
- The government can not compel you to testify against yourself.
- You can invoke spousal privilege an not testify against your spouse.
- Businesses are not protected. You have to give records.
- Sole proprietors are protected, because it is a sole proprietorship would be testifying against themselves.
Real or physical evidence.
Fifth Amendment does not include fingerprints and DNA evidence.
Must speak up and make it clear that they are invoking their Miranda rights.
Sixth Amendment Protection rights
- To a speedy trial
- To a trial by jury
- To be informed of the charge against you
- To confront your accuser
- To subpoena witnesses in your favor
- To have the assistance of an attorney
- Falsifies, conceals, or covers up any trick scheme or device a material fact
- Makes any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation
- Makes or uses any false writing for document knowing the same to contain any materially false fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry can face fines and/or imprisonment
Mail or wire fraud
- It is illegal to use either the U.S. Postal Service or electronic means of interstate communication to carry out a scheme to defraud.
- Each use of the mail or wire communication constitutes a separate violation.
- A statement or representation is false or fraudulent if it is known to be untrue or is made with reckless indifference as to its truth or falsity.
Burden of proof
- Intent to defraud- to act knowingly and with specific intent to deceive someone.
- Good faith- is inconsistent with intent to defraud or willfulness, purposes essential to the charges.
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Rule 10(b) 5. Covers fraud in the purchase or sale of a security.
Health care fraud
- Billing for services not actually performed.
- Falsifying a patient's diagnosis
- "Uncoding" billing for a more costly procedure
- "Unbundling" billing each stage of a procedure as if it were a separate procedure.
- Accepting kickbacks for patient referrals.
- Billing for more than the copy amount.
The bankrupt debtor to falsify information in the bankruptcy proceedings. Also to present a false claim in any bankrupt proceeding.
- Is a separate criminal offense for anyone to conspire or agree with someone else to do something that, if carried out would be a criminal offense.
- Two or more persons
- Defendant willfully became a member
- One of the conspirators commits at least one of the overt acts described in the indictment.
- Such overt act knowingly committed in an effort to carry out or accomplish the conspiracy.
Obstruction of Justice
Occurs when an individual commits an act with the intent to obstruct the legislative process or a judicial process.
False statement to a bank
It is a federal crime for anyone to willfully make a false statement to f federally insured financial institution.
Taking of personal property with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it permanently.
Using violence or a treat to commit a crime.
Breaking into a building with the intent to commit a crime.
RICO/ Racketeers Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act
- -Imposes criminal and civil liability upon those businesspersons who engage in certain prohibited activities and who engage in interstate commerce.
- Uses or invest income from prohibited activities to acquire an interest in or the operate enterprise.
- Acquires of maintains an interest in or control of an enterprise.
- Conducts or participates in the conducts of an enterprise while being employed by or associated with it.
"Any act or threat involving" specified state law crimes, "any" act indictable under various specified federal statutes, and certain federal "offenses".
Pattern of racketeering
Only two acts of racketeering activities within in a 10-year period
Aiding and abetting
A person acts under the direction of someone accused of criminal activities can be held responsible for aiding and abetting in the commission or a crime.
- Accessory before
- Accessory after