Physics exam 2.txt

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Physics exam 2.txt
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Physics1 exam 2
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  1. Rigid object
    An object with a definite shape that does not change.
  2. Axis of rotation
    The line of which the center of a rotating circle moves about.
  3. Radian
    The angle subtended by an arc whose length is equal to the radius. θ = l/r, 360 degrees = 2π rad.
  4. 1 Revolution
    1 rev = 360 degrees = 2π rad.
  5. Angular displacement
    Δθ
  6. Angular velocity
    (ω). ω = θ/t
  7. Average angular velocity
    (ω). ω = Δθ/Δt
  8. Average angular acceleration
    α = lim Δω/Δt
  9. Linear and angular velocity related
    v = rω
  10. Frequency
    Number of complete revolutions per second. f = ω/2π
  11. Period
    T = 1/f
  12. Rolling without slipping
    v = rω
  13. Lever arm
    The distance from the axis of rotation to the line along which the force acts.
  14. Moment arm
    AKA lever arm.
  15. Torque
    (τ) The moment of the force about the axis. τ = rF
  16. Newton's 2nd law for rotation
    τ = I α (τ is m*N, I is kgm^2)
  17. Rotational kinetic energy
    Kinetic energy of a rotating object. 1/2 Iω^2
  18. Work done by torque
    W = τΔθ
  19. Angular momentum
    L = Iω
  20. Parabolic Path
    A plane, flying horizontally, releases a bomb, which explodes before hitting the ground. Neglecting air resistance, the center of mass of the bomb fragments, just after the explosion moves along a ___
  21. In a game of pool, the white cue ball hits the #5 ball and stops while the #5 ball moves away with the same velocity as the cue ball had originally. The type of collision is ___
    elastic
  22. Magnitude Impulse
    • Two equal mass balls, A and B, are dropped from the same height, and rebound off the floor. The A ball rebounds to a higher position. The A ball is subjected to the greater ___ during its collision with the floor
    • Momentum (Kinetic Energy)
  23. The product of an object's mass and velocity is equal to ___
    External Forces
  24. Kinetic energy is never conserved for a perfectly inelastic collision free of ___
    Center of Mass
  25. Tightrope walkers walk with a long flexible rod in order to lower their __
    Momentum Change
  26. A small object collides with a large object and sticks. Both objects experience the same magnitude of ___
    Some Point
  27. For an object on the surface of the earth, the center gravity and the center of mass are the ___
    Conserved
  28. Two objects move toward each other collide, and separate. If there was no net external force acting on the objects, but some kinetic energy was lost, then the collision was not elastic and total linear momentum was ___
    the same
  29. In a baseball game, a batter hits a ball for a home run. Compared to the magnitude of the impulse imparted to the ball, the magnitude of the impulse imparted to the bat is ___
  30. Momentum
    A rubber ball and a lump of putty have equal mass. They are thrown with equal speed against a wall. the ball bounces back with nearly the same speed with which it hit. the putty sticks to the wall. The ball experiences the greater ___
  31. Elastic
    Kinetic energy is conserved when it is an __ collision.
  32. the time of impact
    A baseball catcher wears a glove rather than just using bare hands to catch a pitched baseball because the force on the catcher's hand is reduced because the glove increases __
  33. Conserved
    two objects collide and stick together. Kinetic energy is definitely not ___
  34. Decreases
    A freight car moves along a frictionless level railroad
  35. Elastic
    two objects collide and bounce off each other. Kinetic energy is conserved only if the collision is ___
  36. They are the Same
    A golf ball moving east at a speed of 4 m/s, collides with a stationary bowling ball. The golf ball bounces back to west, and the bowling ball moves very slowly to the east. Neither other experiences the greater magnitude impulse ___
  37. Conserved
    Two objects collide and stick together. Linear momentum is definitely __
  38. Constant
    If an object is acted on by a non-zero net external force, its momentum will not remain ___
  39. Conserved
    • When a cannon fires a cannonball, the cannon will recoil backward because the momentum of the cannonball and the cannon is __
    • "Balance Point"
  40. The center of gravity of an object may be thought of as the __
    Backwards
  41. A 100-kg football linebacker moving at 2 m/s tackles head-on an 80-kg halfback running 3 m/s. Neglecting the effects due to digging in of cleats, the halfback will drive the linebacker __
  42. Impulse
    The area under the curve on an F-t graph represents __
  43. Conserved
    When two cars collide and lock together both momentum and total energy is __
  44. Same Average Force
    A small car meshes with a large truck in a head-on collision. The small car and large truck experience the __
  45. Vector
    Momentum is a __ quantity
  46. Acceleration Due to Gravity
    The graph below shows the relationship between weight and mass for a series of objects, the slope of the graph represents __
  47. Doubled
    If the mass of a moving object could be doubled, the inertia would be __
  48. 4x as great
    compared to the inertia of a 1-kg mass, the inertia of a 4kg mass would be __
  49. weight and momentum
    a copper coin is resting on a piece of cardboard is placed on a beaker as shown in the diagram below when the cardboard is rapidly removed, the coin drops into the beaker. The properties of the coin which best explain its fall are its __
  50. Decrease
    As the mass of an object decreases, its inertia will __
  51. greater momentum
    A 5N ball and a 10N ball are released simultaneously from a point 50m above the surface of the Earth. Neglecting air resistance, which statement is true? at the end of 3s of free-fall. the 10 N ball will have a ______ than the 5N ball.
  52. More Momentum
    In the diagram below, a .4kg steel sphere and a .1kg wooden sphere are located 2.0m above the ground. Both spheres are allowed to fall from rest. Best statement when they fell 1m: Both spheres have the same sped and the steel sphere has _______ then the wooden sphere.
  53. Uniform Circular Motion
    Movement in a circle at a constant velocity, v.
  54. Acceleration Equation
    A = (change in velocity)/(change in time)
  55. Centripetal Acceleration/Radial Acceleration
    Acceleration towards the center of a circle (Centripetal = "center-pointing")
  56. Centripetal Acceleration Equation
    A = v²/r
  57. Frequency
    The number of revolutions per second.
Defined as f.
  58. Period
    Time required to complete one revolution.
Defined as T.
  59. Equation Relating Frequency and Period
    T = 1/f
  60. Centripetal Force equation
    F = mv²/r
  61. Law of Universal Gravitation
    Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This force acts along the line joining the two particles.
  62. Law of Universal Gravitation Equation
    F = G(m1m2)/r²
  63. Value of the constant G
    G = 6.67 x 10⁻¹¹ Nm²/kg²
  64. Velocity of an object in uniform circular motion
    v = (2pir)/T
  65. Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion
    The path of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus
  66. Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion
    Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time
  67. Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion
    The ratio of the squares of the periods T of any two planets revolving about the sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their mean distances s from the sun.
(T1/T2)² = (s1/s2)²
  68. Perturbations
    Deviations; perturbations in planetary orbits helped Newton formulate the law of universal gravitation
  69. Causal Laws
    Laws formulated by Newton
  70. Causality
    The idea that one occurrence can cause another
  71. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    A detailed description of the motion of planets about the Sun, written by Johannes Kepler
  72. Gravitational force equation
    • Force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance r from the Earth's center (Force of Gravity = 1/r²
    • Energy
    • The ability to do work.
  73. Work
    W = F * d. Measured in joules.
  74. Joule
    1 J = 1 N * m
  75. Kinetic energy
    KE = 1/2 m * v^2
  76. Net work
    Wsubnet = ΔKE
  77. Work-energy principle
    The net work done on an object is equal to the change in the object's kinetic energy.
  78. Potential energy
    PE = m g h
  79. Gravitational potential energy
    PEsubgravity = m g y
  80. Spring equation
    Fsubs = -k * x
  81. Hooke's law
    AKA spring equation
  82. Elastic potential energy
    Elastic PE = 1/2 k * x^2
  83. Conservative forces
    Forces which the work does not depend on the path taken rather then the initial and final positions. Eg: gravity.
  84. Nonconservative forces
    Forces that its work depends on the path. Eg: friction.
  85. Total mechanical energy
    Esub2 = Esub1
  86. Conserved quantity
    Law of conservation, Esub2 = Esub1, KE + PE = KE + PE
  87. Principle of conservation of mechanical energy
    If only conservative forces are acting, the total mechanical energy of a system neither increases nor decreases in any process. It is conserved.
  88. Law of conservation of energy
    The total energy is neither increased nor decreased in any process. Energy can be transformed from one form to another, and transferred from one object to another, but the total amount remains constant.
  89. Dissipative forces
    Forces that dissipate mechanical energy rather then the total energy.
  90. Power
    P = work/time. Measured in Watts
  91. Watt
    1 W = 1 J/s

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