Choose two of the model organisms below and describe what system or process the organism is a model for and why.
1. Fruit fly
2. Caenorhabditis elegans
4. Zebra fish
6. E. coli
1. Fruit Fly
- Used as a model system for exploring gene function and identifying interacting partners of genes which have direct relevance to human systems.
2. C. elegans
- Nervous system. There is a complete wiring diagram of the nervous system: all 302 neurons and the connections between them are known. C. elegans also possesses genes for most of the known molecular components of vertebrate brains.
- 3. mouse - ability to construct mice with pre-determined genetic modifications to the germline (by transgenic technology and gene targeting in embryonic stem cells) has been a powerful tool in studying gene expression and function and in creating mouse models of human disease
- Rat - mammal of choice for physiological, neurological, pharmacological and biochemical analysis.
- is a good model of vertebrate development
- have a high frequency of nonhomologous recombination, it has been very amenable to genetic analysis, and a large amount of information was known about its gene structure, regulation and functionSome essential cellular functions, such as DNA repair, have been conserved between human and yeast cells, and as a result, yeast cells have provided useful models for understanding such processes.
6. E. coli
- studied, both biochemically and genetically, and was therefore an early priority for the Human Genome Project. The full genome sequence was released in 1997 but since then there have been a very large number of other prokaryotic genome projects, many of which have been completed already, including many pathogenic organisms