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Position of stomach relative to esophagus
Distal to esophagus
Stomach) which quadrant does it lay?
Left upper quadrant of abdomen
Stomach) greater curvature
- Greater omentum attached
- *fatty curtain
Stomach) lesser curvature
- Lesser omentum attached
- *connect stomach to liver
Stomach) 4 regions
Stomach) what are rugae ?
Mucosal folds in empty stomach that can increase our capacity in stomach
Stomach) is pylori sphincter anatomic or physiological?
Stomach) muscularis external of stomach: (3)
-oblique layer of fibers in 3 different directions
-pummels food into chyme
-rams chime into duodenum
Mucosa of stomach contains (2)
Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: what do surface and neck cells secrete?
Mucus that lines the lining o the stomach to protect against acidic environments
Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: parietal cells secrete (2)
- intrinsic factor
- *central for digestion of b12 vitamins
Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: Chief cells secrete? (2)
- -pepsinogen and lipase
- *for protein digestion
Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: enteroendocrine cells secrete (2)
Gastric released by g-cells
Increases stomach motility and secretions
Small intestine) where are most of nutrients absorbed at?
Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: plicae circulares (2)
-permanent folds of mucosa and submucosa
-Increase absorptive surface and time
Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: villa (2)
- Folds of epithelium and lamina propria
- *increase surface area
Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: microvilli
Each cell of a villas contains microvilli which are apical membrane folds that increase surface area
Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: what's within a villi?
Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: what's central lacteal?
Stalk that absorbs fat
Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: villi, what are the 3 simple columnar cells?
Small intestine) lymphatic nodules
Small intestine) what are Peyer's patches
Lymphatic nodules that prevent infection by policing the byproducts bacteria & flora produce
Small intestine) duodenum : what's its structure>?
c shaped that surround the head of pancreas
Small intestine) duodenum : what are Brunners glands? (2)
Located in duodenum
Secrete bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidic chyme
Small intestine) duodenum : 2 important large accessory glands it interacts with?
Liver and pancreas
Small intestine) duodenum : is gall bladder an accessory gland?
No, muscular pouch
Small intestine) duodenum: what 2 ducts form hepatopancreatic ampulla?
-common bile duct
-main pancreatic duct
Small intestine) duodenum : where does hepatopancreatic ampulla form?
Outside of the wall
Small intestine) duodenum : what forms inside the wall then?
- Major duodenal papilla
- *leaky nipple
Small intestine) duodenum : what do both ampulla and papilla do? (2)
-deliver exocrine products from liver and pancreas
-facilitate digestion of nutrients
Small intestine) how lowing is jejunum?
How long is ileum?>
Small intestine) jujunem and ileum are intraperitoneal ....meaning
They are suspended into the peritoneal cavity by mesentery
Mesentery of abdominopelvic cavity ) what is mesentery
- Double layer of peritoneum that suspends digestive organs from dorsal wall of cavity
Mesentery of abdominopelvic cavity ) what's retroperitoneal?
- Some organs move posterior to parental peritoneum
- *pancreas and duodenum
Liver) whjich quadrant is it located on?>
Liver) 4 lobes
Liver) position of quadrate
Left of gall bladder`
Liver) positioned of Caudate?
Posterior towards caudal
Liver) 2 ligaments
- -round ligament, ligamentum teres
- *remnants of umbilical vein
Liver) falciform ligament (2)
-mesentery, divides l and r lobes of liver
-suspends liver from diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall
Gall bladder and duct system) left and right hepatic ducts of liver become
Common hepatic duct
Gall bladder and duct system) cystic duct
Takes bile in and out of gall bladder for storage and release
Gall bladder and duct system) cystic duct and common hepatic duct make
What 3 things are located in portal area AKA Porta Hepatis?
-common bile duct
-proper hepatic artery
-hepatic portal vein
What do DRs use to palpitate for portal hepatis ?
Microscopic structure of liver: what are portal triads formed by?
Microscopic structure of liver: blood in arterioles and venules flow
Microscopic structure of liver: bile in canaliculi flow
Microscopic structure of liver: blood from venules go to (3)
Central vein then to interlobular veins then to IVC
Pancreas) position relative to stomach
transversely behind the stomach
Pancreas) where do its exocrine secretions go?
- They travel through the pancreatic duct into the duodenim
- *joins bile duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla
Pancreas) endocrine protion
-islets of Langerhans which secret insulin and glucagon from alpha/beta cells
Pancreas) acinar cells secrete
Pancreatic enzymes into pancreatic duct
Pancreas) overview exocrine involved in
Pancreas) overview, endocrine involved in
Large intestine) From right to left ...(4)
-cecum & appendix
Large intestine) how long?
Large intestine) lined with numerous ____ and ____ cells
Mucus and absorptive
Large intestine) goblet cells
Produce mucus to line lumen
Large intestine) simple columnar epithelial
Involved in absorptive to dehydrate the waste
Large intestine) 3 accessory structure
Large intestine) haustra
Segments of the intestine
Large intestine) Tenia coli
Smooth muscle that promotes motility
Large intestine) epiploic appendages
Walls of large intestine) (4)
No plicae circulares or villi
Contains intestinal glands and cells with microvilli for absorption of water
Lots of goblet cells to facilitate movement of undigested food
Some lymphatic nodules
Blood supply to digestive organs) celiac trunk (5)
Blood supply to digestive organs) SMA (2)
Small intestine and proximal 2/3 large intestine
Blood supply to digestive organs) IMA
1.3 distal large intestine
Control of digestion ) parasympathetic : vagus nerve
-first 1/3 of the large intestine
Control of digestion ) parasympathetic : pelvic splanchnic nerves S2,3,4
Distal 2/3 of large intestine
Control of digestion ) Sympathetic : (4)
- bypass chain ganglia to synapse at a collateral distant point, which they form splanchnic nerves
-arrive at peruses surrounding the unpaired arteries in abdominal aorta
-post gang arises & travels with blood vessels of GI tract
-sympathetic activation of arteries that arise from CL, SMA, IMA will vasocontrict during exercise to shunt blood away from this area & into working muscle