Digestion II

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Digestion II
2015-03-28 17:28:15

Digestion II
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  1. Position of stomach relative to esophagus
    Distal to esophagus
  2. Stomach) which quadrant does it lay?
    Left upper quadrant of abdomen
  3. Stomach) greater curvature
    • Greater omentum attached
    • *fatty curtain
  4. Stomach) lesser curvature
    • Lesser omentum attached
    • *connect stomach to liver
  5. Stomach) 4 regions



  6. Stomach) what are rugae ?
    Mucosal folds in empty stomach that can increase our capacity in stomach
  7. Stomach) is pylori sphincter anatomic or physiological?
  8. Stomach) muscularis external of stomach: (3)
    -oblique layer of fibers in 3 different directions

    -pummels food into chyme

    -rams chime into duodenum
  9. Mucosa of stomach contains (2)
    -gastric pit

    -gastric gland
  10. Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: what do surface and neck cells secrete?
    Mucus that lines the lining o the stomach to protect against acidic environments
  11. Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: parietal cells secrete (2)

    • intrinsic factor
    • *central for digestion of b12 vitamins
  12. Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: Chief cells secrete? (2)
    • -pepsinogen and lipase
    • *for protein digestion
  13. Stomach) stomach cells and secretions: enteroendocrine cells secrete (2)
    Gastric released by g-cells

    Increases stomach motility and secretions
  14. Small intestine) where are most of nutrients absorbed at?
  15. Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: plicae circulares  (2)
    -permanent folds of mucosa and submucosa

    -Increase absorptive surface and time
  16. Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: villa (2)
    • Folds of epithelium and lamina propria
    • *increase surface area
  17. Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: microvilli
    Each cell of a villas contains microvilli which are apical membrane folds that increase surface area
  18. Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: what's within a villi?
    Central lacteal
  19. Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: what's central lacteal?
    Stalk that absorbs fat
  20. Small intestine) wall structure of small intestine: villi, what are the 3 simple columnar cells?


  21. Small intestine) lymphatic nodules
    Peyers patches
  22. Small intestine) what are Peyer's patches
    Lymphatic nodules that prevent infection by policing the byproducts bacteria & flora produce
  23. Small intestine) duodenum : what's its structure>?
    c shaped that surround the head of pancreas
  24. Small intestine) duodenum : what are Brunners glands? (2)
    Located in duodenum

    Secrete bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidic chyme
  25. Small intestine) duodenum : 2 important large accessory glands it interacts with?
    Liver and pancreas
  26. Small intestine) duodenum : is gall bladder an accessory gland?
    No, muscular pouch
  27. Small intestine) duodenum: what 2 ducts form hepatopancreatic ampulla?
    -common bile duct

    -main pancreatic duct
  28. Small intestine) duodenum : where does hepatopancreatic ampulla form?
    Outside of the wall
  29. Small intestine) duodenum : what forms inside the wall then?
    • Major duodenal papilla
    • *leaky nipple
  30. Small intestine) duodenum : what do both ampulla and papilla do? (2)
    -deliver exocrine products from liver and pancreas

    -facilitate digestion of nutrients
  31. Small intestine) how lowing is jejunum?
    8 ft
  32. How long is ileum?>
    12 ft
  33. Small intestine) jujunem and ileum are intraperitoneal ....meaning
    They are suspended into the peritoneal cavity by mesentery
  34. Mesentery of abdominopelvic cavity ) what is mesentery
    • Double layer of peritoneum that suspends digestive organs from dorsal wall of cavity
    • *intraperitoneal
  35. Mesentery of abdominopelvic cavity ) what's retroperitoneal?
    • Some organs move posterior to parental peritoneum
    • *pancreas and duodenum
  36. Liver) whjich quadrant is it located on?>
    Upper right
  37. Liver) 4 lobes



  38. Liver) position of quadrate
    Left of gall bladder`
  39. Liver) positioned of Caudate?
    Posterior towards caudal
  40. Liver) 2 ligaments
    • -round ligament, ligamentum teres
    • *remnants of umbilical vein

    -falciform ligament
  41. Liver) falciform ligament (2)
    -mesentery, divides l and r lobes of liver

    -suspends liver from diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall
  42. Gall bladder and duct system) left and right hepatic ducts of liver become
    Common hepatic duct
  43. Gall bladder and duct system) cystic duct
    Takes bile in and out of gall bladder for storage and release
  44. Gall bladder and duct system) cystic duct and common hepatic duct make
    Bile duct
  45. What 3 things are located in portal area AKA Porta Hepatis?
    -common bile duct

    -proper hepatic artery

    -hepatic portal vein
  46. What do DRs use to palpitate for portal hepatis ?
    omental foramen
  47. Microscopic structure of liver: what are portal triads formed by?
    -hepatic artery

    -portal vein

    -bile duct
  48. Microscopic structure of liver: blood in arterioles and venules flow
  49. Microscopic structure of liver: bile in canaliculi flow
  50. Microscopic structure of liver: blood from venules go to (3)
    Central vein then to interlobular veins then to IVC
  51. Pancreas) position relative to stomach
    transversely behind the stomach
  52. Pancreas) where do its exocrine secretions go?
    • They travel through the pancreatic duct into the duodenim
    • *joins bile duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla
  53. Pancreas) endocrine protion
    -islets of Langerhans which secret insulin and glucagon from alpha/beta cells
  54. Pancreas) acinar cells secrete
    Pancreatic enzymes into pancreatic duct
  55. Pancreas) overview exocrine involved in
  56. Pancreas) overview, endocrine involved in
    Glucose regulation
  57. Large intestine) From right to left ...(4)
    -cecum & appendix



    -anal canal
  58. Large intestine) how long?
    1.5 m
  59. Large intestine) lined with numerous ____ and ____ cells
    Mucus and absorptive
  60. Large intestine) goblet cells
    Produce mucus to line lumen
  61. Large intestine) simple columnar epithelial
    Involved in absorptive to dehydrate the waste
  62. Large intestine) 3 accessory structure

    -Tenia coli  

    -epiploic appendages
  63. Large intestine) haustra
    Segments of the intestine
  64. Large intestine) Tenia coli
    Smooth muscle that promotes motility
  65. Large intestine) epiploic appendages
    Fat collections
  66. Walls of large intestine) (4)
    No plicae circulares or villi

    Contains intestinal glands and cells with microvilli for absorption of water

    Lots of goblet cells to facilitate movement of undigested food

    Some lymphatic nodules
  67. Blood supply to digestive organs) celiac trunk (5)



    -gall baldder

  68. Blood supply to digestive organs) SMA (2)
    Small intestine and proximal 2/3 large intestine
  69. Blood supply to digestive organs) IMA
    1.3 distal large intestine
  70. Control of digestion ) parasympathetic : vagus nerve
    -first 1/3 of the large intestine
  71. Control of digestion ) parasympathetic : pelvic splanchnic nerves S2,3,4
    Distal 2/3 of large intestine
  72. Control of digestion ) Sympathetic : (4)
    - bypass chain ganglia to synapse at a collateral distant point, which they form splanchnic nerves

    -arrive at peruses surrounding the unpaired arteries in abdominal aorta

    -post gang arises & travels with blood vessels of GI tract

    -sympathetic activation of arteries that arise from CL, SMA, IMA will vasocontrict during exercise to shunt blood away from this area & into working muscle