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Name two major differences between bacteria viruses and animal viruses:
- no tail
- use chemical attraction
- have glycoprotiens
- cannot be induced
What is a virus called without an envelope?
What is the capsid composed of?
What is the name of the process by which a virus envelops itself?
What is the protein coat of a virus called?
What is a virus that infects bacteria called?
bacteriophage or phage
How are viruses categorized?
by their nucleic acid
Name the six types of viruses:
What are the two stages of a virus?
- intracellular (virus)
- extracellular (virion)
Name the steps in the Lytic Cycle:
Name the steps of the Lysogenic Cycle or Lysogeny:
- then moves to lytic cycle
Name the three ways induction can occur:
- chemical damage
- spontaneous damage
- exposure to UV light
How does the retrovirus work?
uses reverse transcriptase to create DNA, then RNA, to viral proteins.
Why are viruses difficult to treat?
Because when a virus buds off, it takes part of the host's envelop. That makes it difficult to kill the virus without harming the host's cells. The virus is also constantly changing and evolving.
destroys the cell
period of latency
What is the family name for the ebola virus?
What is the family name for the flu?
Common 20-sided polyhedral capsid:
Name the parts of a bacteriophage:
- nucleic acid
- tail fibers
Name the three ways an animal virus can enter a cell?
- direct penetration
- membrane fusion
Scientists have determined that prion diseases are not caused by a type of slow virus because prions __________.
contain no nucleic acid
Which of the following types of genetic material is normally found only in certain types of viruses and not in cells?
HeLa cells are an example of a __________ cell culture.
Fertilized chicken eggs are useful for the culture of viruses for all of the following reasons EXCEPT __________.
they allow bacteriophages to become latent.
In the early 1900s, the virologist F. Peyton Rous discovered __________.
What is the advantage of lysogeny to the lambda phage?
the phage persists for generations in the bacterial chromosome
Each of the following features is common to both bacteriophage and animal virus infections EXCEPT __________.
Name the common ways bacteriophages attach to the outer structures of a bacterial cell:
Negative-sense ssRNA viruses require which of the following enzymes for their replication?
RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase
Which of the following types of viruses replicates in the cell's nucleus?
Which of the following viruses creates a DNA intermediary molecule from the information in their RNA genomes?
The tail fibers of a bacteriophage are most useful during which of the following stages of the lytic replication cycle?
What is an infectious agent that does not contain any nucleic acid?
What type of molecules are the capsid made out of?
Put the following terms in order, from simplest to most complex: a. virion b. capsomere c. capsid d. nucleocapsid
Most viral genomes are much smaller than the genomes of the cells they infect. Which of the following CANNOT be inferred from this statement?
a) Viral genomes can be enclosed in very small capsids.
b) Most viruses can infect only certain types of cells.
c) Viral genomes usually contain fewer genes than cellular genomes.
d) Viral genomes usually do not encode all of the enzymes or structures necessary for their replication.
The outermost layer of a virion fulfills which of the following functions of the virus?
B)recognition and replication
c)protection and recognition
C-protection and recognition
The majority of cases of infant diarrhea are caused by what kind of virus?
Which of the following would be an appropriate mode of action for a new anticancer drug?
inactivation of an oncogene
Virus that infects plants:
Prion disease found in deer and elk:
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
What condition in humans is linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy?
What are repressed cancer cells called?
What are they called when they are "turned on"?
How do viruses causes cancer?
They can activate protooncogene and/or inhibit the repressor gene from functioning properly.
A clear zone of phage infection in a bacterial lawn is ________.
What is not a criteria for specific family classification of viruses?
A good bacteria that is affected by a temperate virus and then becomes virulent is defined as what?
What method is used to count viruses?
Name the normal alpha helix protein:
Name the misfolded beta sheet protein that causes disease and can only be destroyed by incineration:
Which virus goes to the nucleus -> convert to RNA -> cytoplasm -> protein?
Which virus goes to the cytoplasm -> protein?
Chemical used to on the skin or tissue to reduce pathogens.
antiseptic (neosporin cream)
Destruction of most microorganisms and viruses on surfaces or objects:
disinfectants (Lysol Disinfectant)
Method of killing pathogens in a public place is called:
sanitization (restaurant utensils)
Suspension of reproduction in microorganisms is called:
Destruction of all microorganisms and viruses in or on an object.
sterilazation (autoclave, incineration, ethylene oxide)
What BSL would anthrax be under?
Is most heat better than dry heat and why?
most heat because water hold heat at high levels to kill of pathogens.
Name the four types of moist heat:
- ultra high sterilization (for prions)
What method is good for killing off sacrophiles like Yesinia and Listeria?
freezing at 0oC - 7oC
Which method stores at -178o C?
Which method stores at -110o C?
dry ice (CO2)
Osmotic pressure is good for what organism?
Which method can increase shelf life and used on fruits?
Method to remove microorganisms from blood but viruses can still get through:
Hydrogen peroxide does not make a good antiseptic for open wounds because ___________ in human tissue neutralizes it.
Damage to the cell wall will adversely affect a bacterial cell by enhancing the damaging effects of which of the following? (think barophiles)
Milk that can be stored for months at room temperature has been treated by which of the following methods?
Which of the following is the LEAST useful indicator of an antimicrobial agent's effectiveness?
a)the phenol coefficient
b)the in-use test
c)the use-dilution test
d)the Kelsey-Sykes capacity test
Which of the following is NOT a direct mode of action of antimicrobial drugs?
a)inhibition of flagella formation
b)inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
c)inhibition of protein synthesis
d)inhibition of cell wall synthesis
What is meant by selective toxicity?
Chemotherapeutic agents should act against the pathogen and not the host.
Why are chemotherapeutic agents that work on the peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria a good choice of drug?
Humans and other animal hosts lack peptidoglycan cell walls.
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones act against what bacterial target?
c)Metabolic pathways unique to bacteria