Nutrient Metabolism

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Nutrient Metabolism
2015-03-29 14:34:07
Equine Nutrition
ANSC 324
Show Answers:

  1. Anabolic:
  2. Catabolic:
  3. anabolic pathway:
  4. catabolic pathways:
  5. What are some examples of nutrient uses?
    • ion gradients
    • membrane transport
    • enzyme
    • endocrine
    • synthesis of support tissues
    • regulation and delivery of fuel supplies
    • storage of excess energy
  6. What occurs in anabolic pathways?
    • synthesis
    • packaging
    • storage
  7. What occurs in catabolic pathways?
    • breakdown
    • utilization
  8. Where do CHOs and proteins go?
    small intestine to the liver
  9. Where can glucose be stored?
    in the liver or in the muscle (primarily muscle)
  10. What can be made into proteins?
    amino acids
  11. Where do lipids go?
    packaged as lipoproteins and either go straight to fatty acids in the muscle or go through the lymphatic system first and then into adipose tissue
  12. What are lipids made into?
    fatty acids
  13. What can be used by the CNS for energy?
    only glucose, not fat
  14. What can help restore the liver?
    proteins from skeletal tissue
  15. Where are different types of fuels stored?
    • glucose in the liver
    • lipids in adipose tissue
    • amino acids in skeletal muscle
  16. Why is there a constant need for food?
    ATP is not stored
  17. How is ATP regenerated?
    through Phosphorylation of ADP
  18. Where does energy come from?
    CHOs and fat stores
  19. What can glucose be turned into?
    glycogen, pyruvate or fatty acids
  20. How does glucose get into the cell?
    insulin from the pancreas opens a transporter to allow glucose into the cell
  21. Where does anaerobic regeneration occur?
    in the cytoplasm
  22. Describe the PCr pathway.
    • anaerobic
    • Phosphocreatine
    • only muscles use this pathway
    • brings in an instant supply but only lasts for about 15 seconds
    • 1:1 ratio PC to ATP
    • more common in speed horses
  23. Describe Glycolysis.
    • anaerobic
    • changes glucose into pyruvate
    • uses glycogen to produce energy
    • regenerates more ATP than PCr
  24. slow twitch muscles:
    • has lots of mitochondria
    • CHO/Fat Oxidation
  25. fast twitch muscles:
    • has few mitochondria
    • PCr and Glycolysis
  26. glucose molecule:
  27. by-product of glycolysis:
    CO2 and water
  28. What's the difference between breaking down glycogen and adipose tissue?
    it takes more oxygen to break down on molecule of fatty acid than glycogen
  29. When heartrate is above 150:
    horse is no longer burning fat and is now using anaerobic metabolism and burning muscle stores
  30. What is the target heartrate to burn fat?
    90-150 bpm
  31. What turns fatty acids into ATP?
    beta oxidation
  32. What is the primary source of energy from 0-80% intensity level?
    fatty acids
  33. What is the primary source of energy at more than 80% intensity?
  34. What VFAs are made into fat?
    • acetate
    • butyrate
    • takes longer
  35. What VFAs are made into glucose?