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What are four examples of unethical research (scientific misconduct?
- Fraud, research protocol violations
- Fabrication, falsification, forging of data
- Putting subjects at risk without consent
What events led to the development of the Nuremberg Code in 1949?
mistreatment of Nazi prisoners of war during WW2
Ethical research guidelines is based on what three principles?
- Respect for persons
In what three ways can the principle of self-determination be violated?
- covert data collection
What is the term for forcing someone to be in a study?
What is the term for when subjects are unaware that the study is taking place?
covert data collection
What is the term for when subjects are misinformed about the study?
What is the term for freedom from harm and exploitation and includes risk/benefit ratios?
What is the term for when no one, not even the researcher knows the identity of the subjects?
What is the term for when the researcher refrains from sharing information with others?
IRBs review studies to ensure what three things?
- protection of rights and welfare
- voluntary informed consent
- benefits exceed risks
What extent of IRB review happens when there is no risk to subjects (anonymous survey with no PHI)?
exempt from review procedures
What extent of IRB review happens when there is minimal risk to subjects (testing on previously obtained specimens, survey research)?
What extent of IRB review involves reviewing studies using vulnerable populations and have greater than minimal risk?
What two things should you look for when reading a research study?
- Was study approved by the appropriate IRB?
- Was informed consent obtained from subjects?