ASTR Exam 2 Study

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Anonymous
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299468
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ASTR Exam 2 Study
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2015-03-30 00:12:17
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Asrtonomy
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Astro Exam 2 Study
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  1. Planetesimals
    Small dust particles that collect and form larger clumps
  2. Protoplanets
    • When planetesimals collide with each other and form larger bodies called Protoplanets. Protoplanets are at least partially molten
    • -Dense material falls to core and less dense material goes to surface
  3. Terrestrial Planets
    • -External crust (low density (hard rock)
    • -Mantle(medium density, plastic flow)
    • -Core (High density, hard metal)
    • -Rigid Lithosphere: Crust and small upper part of mantle
  4. Terrestrial Planets: Sources of Heat
    • -Accrecion: When kinetic energy from incoming materials turns into thermal energy and mass is added to the object being struck by the foreign body
    • -Differentiation: When sinking dense material and rising less dense material move, it creates heat
    • -Radioactive decay of elements within a planet cause heat
  5. Terrestrial Planets: Cooling Processes
    • -Convection: Hot material rises and cools
    • -Thermal Conduction: The transfer of heat energy from one end of the lithosphere to the other
    • -Radiated Heat: heat coming off the planet and radiating into space
    • -Volcanic Eruptions: Nuff' said
  6. S and P Waves
    • -P Waves: Primary waves. Like pushing a person
    • -S Waves: Secondary waves, like creating waves with a jump rope. These do not travel through the Earth's core
  7. Surface Waves
    Like Water waves, roll on the surface
  8. Tidal heating
    Tidal forces created by the gravitational pull from a nearby object can heat a planet. Example: Moon
  9. Ways to learn about inner earth
    • Most accurate: Earthquakes.
    • Other methods include the magnetic field and observing rotation of the earth
  10. Terrestrial Planets
    • Magnetic Fields
    • -Mercury: Has a global magnetic field
    • -Venus: Spins too slow for a magnetic field
    • -Earth: Global magnetic field
    • -Mars: No global magnetic field but had one in the past
    • Volcanos
    • -Mercury: No volcanos and probably no internal activity
    • -Venus: Possibly active volcanos but most extinct, active interior
    • -Earth: Active volcanos, active interior
    • -Mars: Extinct volcanos extinct interior
  11. Magnetic Fields
    A planet must have a liquid core/mantle and be spinning quickly enough to have a magnetic field
  12. Isostay
  13. Terrestrial Shaping Processes
    • -Fluvial: Liquid flow, such as river canals
    • -Aeolian: Formed by air such as dunes
    • -Glacial: Formed by solid glaciers¬†
    • -Impact Craters
  14. Terrestrial Shaping Processes by Type
    • -Internal (volcanos/plate tectonics)
    • -Erosion
    • -Impact craters (Dominant geological process on most bodies)

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