Chapter 25 Test

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Chapter 25 Test
2015-03-29 18:50:30
European History Chapter 25 AP
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chapter 25 test
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  1. What the Germans gave Austria following the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand in response to how to act. Germany agrees to support Austrian attack on Serbia, and urges Austria to move swiftly while the other powers are still angry at Serbia. Also made the Austrians feel they would view a failure to act as evidence of Austria-Hungary's weakness and uselessness as an ally.
    " A Blank Check"
  2. The German army made a strong advance toward Paris in September of 1914. A coalition of French and British soldiers met the German army at the Marne River in mid-September and fought a battle for position. The British and French were able to push the German army back and prevented Paris from falling to Germany.
    Battle of the Marne (1914)
  3. German victory that forced Russians to retreat from German territory
    Battle of the Masurian Lakes (1914)
  4. the Allies launched a major offensive along this river. Aided by a Russian attack in the east that drew off some German soldiers, the Allies hoped to break through the German line of defense. Enormous casualties were suffered on both sides without result.
    Battle of the Somme (1916)
  5. German general, Falkenhayn, had planned an attack near this French fort with the aim of killing as many French troops as possible. Many French troops were slaughtered; however the fort proved capable of resisting a massive onslaught and the few surviving French soldiers were able to kill as many German soldiers as French men had died. This battle was was a huge moral victory for the Allies as the quote "They shall not pass" by Henri Petain, the commander the fort, became a slogan of French national defiance against Germany.
    Battle of Verdun (1916)
  6. The major Allied leaders who made all of the important decisions at the Peace Conference at Versailles. Georges Clemenceau (France), Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), and David Lloyd George (Britain).
    Big Four
  7. a secret terrorist organization that encouraged ethnic Serbs in areas such as Bosnia to work for unification of Serbia. It organized the murder of Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
    Black Hand
  8. Worked against the provisional government that was set up after Nicholas II's abdication. Leader was Lenin. Communist. Wanted all political power to go to the soviets, which they controlled. Attempted a coup of power from the provisional government the first time, which is unsuccessful. The second coup is successful, and this group comes to rule Russia. All other political parties ceased to function as the government under the party nationalized the land and turned it over to its peasant proprietors, factory workers put in charge of plants, and the property of the church was turned over to the state. Also takes Russia out of the war, believing it benefited only capitalism. Agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which lost Russia a lot of land, and also agreed to pay a war indemnity.
  9. Austria had occupied and administered this region since 1878. Austrians, wanting to annex this region officially, made a deal with Russia in which they would agree to support the opening of Dardanelles to Russian warships if Russia supported Austrian annexation. Both wanted to act quickly before Turks become strong enough to resist. But Austria annexes this region before Russia could act and Britain and France will not open the Dardanelles to Russia.
  10. Although later a prime minister, during World War I, he was the first lord of the British admiralty. He proposed a plan to capture Constantinople, which would supposedly knock Turkey out of the war, bring help from the Balkan front, and ease communications with Russia. His planned failed because it was poorly executed. 150,000 Allied troops were slaughtered by the Turkish
    Winston Churchill
  11. Representative for France at the Versailles Peace Conference. Made up one of the Big Four.
    Georges Clemenceau
  12. Began with Russia invading Austrian lands and inflicting heavy casualties on the Austro-Hungarian army, but the Central Powers begin to move in against Russia and Russian Poland, killing two million in one year. Turkey and Bulgaria join Central Powers. Japanese enters the war and overrun German Colonies in the Pacific and in China. Italy joins the allies.
    Eastern Front
  13. Was the heir to the Austria throne. On June 28, 1914, he and his wife were assassinated by a young Serbian nationalist, who was a member of Black Hand terrorist society. He was not very popular in Austria and his death did not cause much sadness. Had been known to favor a form of federal government for Austria that would have raised the status of Slavs in the empire, which alienated conservatives and Hungarians, and threatened the creation of an independent south Slav state.
    (Archduke) Francis Ferdinand (of Austria)
  14. The American War aims, list created by President Wilson. Were idealistic principles, including self-determination (ethnic groups had the right to their own sovereignty), open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, disarmament, and the establishment of the League of Nations to keep the peace.
    Fourteen Points
  15. Representative for Britain at the Versailles Peace Conference. Made up one of the Big Four.
    David Lloyd George
  16. Began with the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist. Germany supports Austrian war on Serbia. France and Britain enter war against Germany. Russia enters war against Germany to protect its fellow Slav country, Serbia. Was a war with numerous casualties, yet with little land gained.
    Great War
  17. "Unredeemed Italy". Territories of South Tyrol, Trieste and some of the Dalmatian Islands where Italian speakers inhabited that were left out of the Italian unification. These territories were promised to Italy by the Allies in order for Italy to join their side of the War.
    Italia Irredenta
  18. Moderate socialist that was prime minister of Russia.
    Alexander Kerensky
  19. a body founded in 1919, made of sovereign states that agreed to pursue common policies and to consult in the common interest, especially when war threatened. The council promised to settle differences among themselves by an international court. Was unlikely to be effective because it had no army. Any action also required the consent of its council.The council consisted of the United States, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan. Germany and the Soviet Union were excluded. All promised to "respect and preserve" the territorial integrity of its members.
    League of Nations
  20. Leader of the Bolsheviks, he came back to Russia after his exile with the help of Germany (who hoped to create trouble for the new provisional government) for the purpose of overthrowing the provisional government and creating an alliance consisting of workers and peasants. His speeches that focused on "bread, land, and peace" captivated them.
    Vladimir Lenin
  21. Territories that were legally administered under the auspices of the League of Nations, but were in effect ruled as colonies.
  22. Was tsar of Russia during WWI. Was weak, incompetent, and suspected of being under the domination of his German wife and his peasant faith healer Rasputin. Later took personal leadership of Russian forces on the eastern front and his absence from the capital allowed corrupt ministers to discredit him. As strikes and revolts increased, he abdicated and the government fell into the hands of the Duma, who formed a provisional government composed of Constitutional Democrats (Cadets).
    Nicholas II (of Russia)
  23. Representative for Italy at the Versailles Peace Conference. Made up one of the Big Four.
    Vittorio Orlando
  24. In 1908, a group of modernizing reformers called the Young Turks seized power here and breathed new life into the empire, interfering with the plans of the other European nations to act and gain territory. Entered war on the German side in November 1914, and this ultimately led to its end. The peace treaty dismembered this territory, placing large areas of it under British and French control. A new Turkish Republic after the Greek invasion of the Turkish homeland in Anatolia by Ataturk.
    Ottoman Empire
  25. War in Russia between Red Russians, who supported the communist revolution of the new Bolshevik government, and the White Russians, who were loyal army officers fighting the revolution. The White Russians also received help from the Allies. But under Trotsky's leadership, the Red Army eventually wins.
    Russian Civil War
  26. After the Russian tsar abdicates, the government of Russia falls into the hands of members of the Duma composed chiefly of Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) with western sympathies. Wanted to remain loyal to Russia's alliances and keep Russia in the war. Later, the Bolsheviks wrestle away Russian power from this group.
    Russian Provisional Government
  27. Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which Germany troops would rapidly defeat France and then attack Russia in the east. Made the left wing weak and right wing stronger to have the French attack the wrong place. Purpose was to avoid a two-front war against Germany. Germany violated Belgium's declaration of neutrality and the Belgians resisted as the German army crossed Belgium to invade France from the north. In response to Germany's violation of Belgium's neutrality, Great Britain declared war on Germany. Plan failed narrowly.
    Schlieffen Plan
  28. councils of workers and soldiers that the various socialist groups in Russia began to organize after the provisional government was created following the abdication of Nicholas II. The Bolsheviks controlled this group, and as a result, had demanded that all political power go to them. Laid the groundwork for a revolution of the proletariat.
  29. In response to British blockade at sea which was meant to starve out Germany, Germany begins to sink neutral non-war ships along the British Isles using this tactic, declaring this area a "war zone". After the sinking of the British liner, Lusitania, President Wilson of the US warns Germany to stop sinking neutral ships, which it does, but only temporarily. Eventually provokes the US to declare war on Germany.
    Submarine Warfare
  30. Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. Russia loses 1/3 of her population, including Poland, Finland, the Baltic states and Ukraine. This was signed at the height of German success in WWI.
    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  31. Stated that Germany army was to be reduced to 100,000 men and no tanks were allowed, Germany was only allowed 6 ships and no submarines, Germany was not allowed an air force, the Rhineland area was to be kept free of German military personnel and weapons, Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria. Colonies would be controlled by the League of Nations, and Germany will be forced to make reparations, or payments to the nations that won the war.
    Treaty of Versailles (Versailles Treaty)
  32. a bloody form of war that consisted of two opposing forces digging holes in the ground or "trenches" to provide shelter from enemy gunfire. Gas was also used to fill the trenches of the enemy and kill all within them. Caused heavy casualties, even though not much ground was gained in these conflicts.
    Trench Warfare
  33. Was Lenin's chief collaborator. After failure of the coup, was imprisoned. Later was released from prison and when Lenin returned from Finland in October 1917, both men planned a coup that he organized which concluded with an armed assault on the provisional government Was one of the leaders of the St. Petersburg/Petrograd Soviet. Was responsible for the creation of the Bolshevik armed forces, the Red Army. Was the Russian chief negotiator for the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
    Leon Trotsky
  34. a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI
    War Guilt Clause
  35. Germany vs. France and Britain. France offensive fails because they miscalculated Germany's military strength. British and French manage to stop German advancement at the Battle of the Marne. Thereafter, war on this side became one of position instead of movement. Included usage of trenches, machine gun nests, and poison gas. Costed thousands of lives with advances of only hundreds of yards. After three years, moved only a few miles in either direction.
    Western Front
  36. Warned Germany to end targeting civilian ships, but when it didn't, declared war on Germany. Expressed that the reason for the U.S entry into the war was "to make the world safe for democracy". One of the Big Four.
    Woodrow Wilson
  37. a coded message sent to Mexico from Germany, proposing a military alliance against the United States. Germany wants Mexico to join the War and attack the US in exchange for Germany helping Mexico regain lost territory. The obvious threats to the United States contained in the telegram inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917.
    Zimmerman Telegram
  38. The leading causes of ___________ include:1. the weakness of the Ottoman Empire2. Austrian and Serbian conflict in the Balkans (Bosnia-Herzegovina)3. German ambitions for expansion4. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    World War I
  39. The goal of the Schlieffen Plan was to crush the French within ____ weeks.
  40. The Germans were more successful on the ________ front.
  41. The _______________ entered WWI due to:1. the decision by Germany to resume unrestricted submarine warfare.2. the Zimmerman telegram
    United States
  42. The ____________ were able to seize power in Russia as a result of:1. the existing anarchy2. their appeals to soldiers and urban workers3. the leadership of Lenin and Leon Trotsky.
  43. One of the primary factors in Lenin's acceptance of the treaty was his reluctance to risk his limited control over __________ by continuing to fight in the war.
  44. Factors that led to the victory of the _________ in the Russian Civil War:1. the creation of the Red Army by Leon Trotsky2. the willingness of the Bolsheviks to use terror to crush their opponents3. the disunity and weakness of the Whites.
  45. The major features of the ________ include:1. freedom of the seas2. a league of nations3. open diplomacy4. reduction of armaments5. self-determination
    Fourteen Points
  46. The ________________ did all of the following:1. punished Germany2. gave German territory to the newly recreated nation of Poland3. Dismantled the Austro-Hungarian Empire4. Created the new nations of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia from the former Habsburg holdings
    Treaty of Versailles
  47. From the territory that Russia had given Germany with the _____________, the new nations of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were created. Poland is recreated with some land Germany had acquired from this treaty as well.
    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  48. The only one of the Fourteen Points that President Wilson was successful in getting initiated was the creation of a ___________. Ironically, the US would not join this, since the US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. One of the major reasons was the Senate's fear that it would lose control of the right to declare war.
    League of Nations
  49. Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
    New Imperialism
  50. 1911 - After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
    Morocco Crisis
  51. An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
    Triple Alliance
  52. An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
    Triple Entente
  53. A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.
  54. Battle near Paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory
  55. The series of understandings, or agreements, between France and Britian that led to their alliance in World War I.
    Entente Cordiale
  56. Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.
    Congress of Berlin(1878)
  57. Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated
  58. The traditional British policy of thinking of Britain as separate from the rest of Europe. It turned into insecurity when the European political atmosphere became menacing, esp. when Kaiser Wilhelm II was about to challenge British naval supremacy.
    "Splendid Isolation"
  59. Russia signed a humiliating peace treaty with Germany at this site and dropped out of the war, marking Russia's exit from World War I by conceding Lithuania, Poland, and Finland. Although Lenin supported peace many other Bolsheviks were not prepared to lose one third of the population to Germany.
  60. A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
  61. A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
    Open Door Policy
  62. Written by Keynes, this work illustrated the overall British opinion that Germany should be resuscitated economically for the British economy to flourish. It was against France's harsh reparations
    Economic Consequences of the Peace
  63. To what areas of the world did Europe extend its power after 1870? How and why did European attitudes toward imperialism change after 1870? What features differentiate the New Imperialism from previous imperialist movements? What features did they have in common?
    By the 1870s, the expansion of European influence was not new. SPain, Portugal, France, Holland, and Britain had controlled territories overseas for centuries, but by the mid-nineteenth century, only Great Britain still had extensive holdings. The first half of the century was generally hostile to colonial expansion. The loss of the American colonies had sobered even the British. The French acquired Algeria and part of Indochina, and the British added territory to their holdings in Canada, India, Australia, and New Zealand. In the last third of the century, however, the European states swiftly spread their control over perhaps ten million square miles and 150 million people-about one-fifth of the world’s land area and one-tenth of its population. During this period, European expansion went forward with great speed, and participation in it came to be regarded as necessary for a great power. The movement has been called New Imperialism. Both forms of imperialism were based upon the policy of extending a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over other nations.
  64. Why did Germany lose World War I? Could Germany have won, or was victory never a possibility? What were the benefits of Versailles to Europe, and what were its drawbacks? Was the settlement too harsh or too conciliatory? Could it have secured lasting peace in Europe? How might it have been improved?
    Germany lost World War 1 for two major reasons. First, their own people were losing the desire to continue fighting; thus, the German war machine died down. Second, the United States entered the war and sent many new soldiers into the battlefield, which the Germans could not handle. Germany could have been able to win if they kept their war machine alive and continued to fight even though they were losing ground. In fact, no country even entered German territory before Germany surrendered. The notion of  “a peace without victory” became a mockery when the Soviet union and germany were excluded from the peace conference. The allies were guaranteed that Germany would be so weak that it could not enter a war again. Furthermore, the Germans had to pay reparations to the other countries. The treaty of Versailles also had a more sinister drawback .It created a want for revenge in the hearts of the German people which would eventually lead to World War 2. The treaty could have been improved if it did not impose such harsh treatments upon any nation, maybe then a lasting peace could have existed
  65. Why did Lenin succeed in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia? What role did Trotsky play? Was it wise policy for Lenin to take Russia out of the war?
    The background of the Russian Revolution provided a clean palette for Lenin to write his ideas. Russia’s tsar, Nicholas II was weak, incompetent, and suspected of being under the domination of his German wife and the insidious peasant faith healer Rasputin, whom a group of Russian noblemen assassinated in 1916,  the price of war led to increased taxation, starvation, and overall civil disorganization in Russia, and the tsar took personal leadership of Russian forces on the eastern front and his absence from the capital allowed corrupt ministers to discredit him all allowed Lenin to succeed in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia. Trotsky, released from prison, led the powerful Petrograd soviet. He also organized a coup that took place on November 6th and concluded with an armed assault on the provisional government. The Bolshevik government also took Russia out of the war. It was unwise for Lenin to take Russia out of the war; however, Lenin had no choice. Russia was incapable of renewing the war effort, and the Bolsheviks needed time to impose their rule. For non-communists, this was no good for the rest of Europe; however, for socialists this was a major step of progress.