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2015-03-31 19:02:26

intro to health
Show Answers:

  1. Microbes have tolerate to
    Salt on skin
  2. Stratum corneum
    horny outer layer of the skin
  3. Million of cells of the _______ _______ slough off daily, shedding microorganisms with them
    stratum corneum
  4. Defense: Antimicrobial peptides
    positively charged chemicals disrupt the negatively charged membranes of bacteria
  5. Defense: Sebum
    • low pH makes the skin inhospitable to microorganisms
    • toxic byproducts of fatty acids metabolism inhibit the growth of microorganism
  6. Defense: Sweat
    Inhibitory to microorganisms due to low pH and high salt concentration
  7. Defense: Lysozyme
    • Enzyme found in sweat, tears, and saliva
    • specifically breaks down peptidoglycan found in cell wall of bacteria
  8. Exanthem
    • skin rash arising from another focus of the infection
    • outside
    • not skin to skin, has to inhale
    • ex. chicken pox
  9. Enanthem
    • mucous membrane rash arising from another focus of the infection 
    • inside
    • ex. kopliks spots associated with measle virus
  10. Skin Lesion: Vesicle
    fluid in socket, herpes, chicken pox
  11. Skin lesion: Bulla
    large blister
  12. Skin lesion: Macule
    • slightly raised, no fluid
    • hive, measles
  13. Skin lesion: Pustule
    • Pus underneath deep skin
    • boil, cystic acid
  14. maculopapular
    flat to slightly raised colored bumps
  15. Most common skin disease in the world
  16. Acne is a ________ _________ condition involving Propionibacterium acnes
    chronic inflammatory
  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis
    • gram positive cocci
    • coagulase negative (enzyme virulence, clumping of RBC)
  18. Staphylococcus aureus
    • Gram positive cocci
    • Coagulase positive
  19. Salt inhibits ____ ____ bacteria to grow
    gram negative
  20. Mannitol Salt Agar
    salt content selects for Staphylococcus
  21. Staphylococcus aureus
    ferments sugar mannitol, and changes red agar to yellow
  22. Staphylococcus epidermidis
    no color change, but still grows staph, and no epidermidis
  23. Folliculitis
    infection of the hair follicles
  24. Sty
    folliculitis of an eye lash
  25. Impetigo
    • crusting (nonbullous) sores, spread by autoinoculation (scratching) 
    • usually stap aureus
    • get by contact
    • superficial bacterial infection that causes the skin to flake, peel
  26. Furuncle
    abscess; pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  27. Carbuncle
    group of furuncles, inflammation of tissue under the skin
  28. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1
  29. Scalded skin syndrome
    exfoliative toxin A and B affects mostly newborns and babies
  30. Methicillian Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
    any strain of S. aureus that has developed resistance to beta lactam antibiotics
  31. MRSA espescially troublesome in ____ and ____ ____, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weaken immune systems
    hospitals, nursing homes
  32. Streptococci
    • blood agar for hemolysis 
    • A= no change
    • B= see through agar
    • C= greening partially, alpha hemolysis
  33. Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci
    • Hemolysins
    • Hyaluronidase
    • Stretolysins
    • M Proteins
    • Cause strep throat, all virulence factors
  34. Group A Streptococci
    causes Necrotising fasciatis and strep, see zone of inhibition
  35. Catalase test
    • differentiate streptococci from non streptococci
    • streptococcus does not react in this test
  36. Catalase test
    break down by products of aerobic respiration, bubbles positive for hydrogen peroxide
  37. Erysipelas
    not spread but painful
  38. Necrotizing Fascists
    Exotoxin A, super antigen spread
  39. Nonbullous Lesions of impetigo
    crusty, dry
  40. Bullous impetigo
    fluid inside
  41. Viral infection of the skin-
  42. Papillomarviruses
  43. Warts
    • papillomaviruses 
    • over 100 different types
  44. treatments for warts
    • Removal: cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, salicylic acid
    • Imiquimod: stimulates interferon production
    • Bleomycin
  45. Smallpox (variola)
    • orthopox virus
    • variola major has 20% mortality 
    • variola minor has less than 1% mortality
    • Eradicated by vaccination
  46. Monkeypox
    prevention by smallpox vaccination
  47. Chickenpox
    • varicella-zoster virus (human herpesvirus 3)
    • causes pus filled vesicles 
    • virus may remain latent in dorsal root ganglia
  48. Chicken pox transmitted by
    transmitted by respiratory route
  49. Chicken pox prevention
    live attenuated vaccine
  50. Breakthrough varicella: chicken pox
    in vaccinated people, still got it, need booster
  51. Shingles:
    • Reaction of latent HHV-3
    • move along peripheral nerves to skin
    • post herpetic neuralgia- damage nerves 
    • Acyclovir (all herpes) lessen symptoms
  52. Shingles prevention
    live attenuated vaccine
  53. Herpes Simplex
    Human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2)
  54. Herpes Simplex: Cold sores or fever blisters
    Vesicles on lips
  55. Herpes Simplex: herpes gladiatorum
    vesicles on skin
  56. Herpes Simplex: Herpetic whitlow
    vesicles on fingers
  57. Herpes Simplex: Herpes encephalitis
    central nervous system
  58. HSV-1 can remain latent in where
    trigeminal nerve ganglia
  59. Human herpes simplex infections are
    widespread and often recurrent
  60. Herpesviradae
    • simplexvirus
    • varicellovirus
    • roseoloviruse
    • lymphocryptovirus
    • rhadinovirus
  61. Measles virus
  62. Measles transmitted by
    respiratory route
  63. Measles prevented by
  64. Measles spot and rash
    • Macular rash
    • Kopliks spots
  65. Rubella
    German measles
  66. Rubella viruse
    maculopapular rash and fever
  67. Congenital rubella syndrome causes
    severe fetal damage
  68. Fifth disease (Erythema Infectiosum) produces
    a mild rash
  69. Fifth disease (Erythema Infectiosum) transmitted
    respiratory droplets
  70. Fifth disease (Erythema Infectiosum) (2)
    Parvoviridae, parvovirus B19
  71. Fifth disease (Erythema Infectiosum) symptoms
    fiery red rash on cheeks, ears, and trunks. it appears within a few days
  72. Fifth disease (Erythema Infectiosum) adults experience symptoms similar to those of
    rheumatoid arthritis
  73. Cutaneous Mycoses (4)
    • Dermatomycoses
    • pityriasis versicolor
    • sportotrichosis
    • candidiasis
  74. Dermatomycoses
    • fungi on skin
    • also known as tinaes or ringworm 
    • metabolize keratin
  75. Pitryriasis versicolor
    endogenous skin infection that occurs in warm humid climates (yeast)
  76. Sporotrichosis
    • gardening, fungus in soil
    • subcutaneous- go through skin in cut
  77. Candidiasis albicans (yeast) may result from
    suppression of competing bacteria by antibiotics
  78. Candidiasis albicans (yeast) occurs in
    skin and mucous membranes of genitourinary tract and mouth
  79. Candidiasis albicans (yeast) treatment
    topical treatment with miconazole or nystatin
  80. Thrush
    infection of mucous membrane of mouth
  81. Parasites (4)
    • Scabies
    • chiggers
    • pediculosis (lice)
    • leishmaniasis
  82. Scabies
    Sarcoptes scabiei
  83. Scabies ______ in the _____ to lay eggs
    burrow, skin
  84. scabies treatment
    topical insecticide
  85. Chiggers immature stages are
    red harvest mite
  86. Chiggers, ____ into ____ _____ and inject ________ ______ which ______ host cells
    crawl, hair follicles, salivary fluid, dissolves
  87. Pepdiculosis
    • Lice
    • pediculus humanus capitis
  88. P. h. corporis
    body louse
  89. P. h. pubis
    • Crabs
    • feed on blood
    • lay eggs (nits) on hair 
    • treatment with topical insecticides
  90. Leishmaniasis
    protozoan disease spread by the bite of the sandfly
  91. Lacrimal Apparatus of the Eye
    protect from dabre and infection
  92. Bacterial eye infections involve
    eyelid, cornea, and conjuctiva
  93. three types of bacterial eye infection
    • bacterial conjunctivitis 
    • trachoma 
    • keratitis
  94. Keratitis
    • invasion of deeper eye tissue
    • blindness can result
    • herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
  95. Trachoma
    Chlamydia trachomatis
  96. Trachoma spread through
    • direct contact with infected eye, nose, or throat secretion
    • contact with towels or clothes
    • flies can spread bacteria
  97. Viral and parasite eye infections involve the conjunctiva or cornea
    • Viral pink eye
    • Acute conjunctivitis
    • Ochocerciasis
    •       River blindness
  98. River blindness
    • caused by onchocerca volvulus, a nematode, ringworm
    • spread by bit of a black fly
    • when the worm dies, the bacterial symbiot, Wolbachia is released which causes an immune response