3.3 Urinary System

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3.3 Urinary System
2015-03-30 16:03:08

Urinary System
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  1. What are the 2 functions of urinary system?
    -conserves body fluids and electrolytes

    -removes waste by the production of urine
  2. 4 parts that make the urinary system


    -urinary bladder

  3. Kidney location) At which level is the kidney placed?
  4. Kidney location) it lies retro or intraperitoneal?
    • retroperitoneal
    • *behind the peritoneal cavity
  5. Coverings of the kidney) what are the 3 coverings of the kidney?
    -renal fascia

    -adipose capsule

    -(renal) fibrous capsule
  6. Internal anatomy of the kidney)  renal cortex is the
    Outer portion of the kidney
  7. Internal anatomy of the kidney) medulla is
    The inner portion of the kidney
  8. Internal anatomy of the kidney) What is nephron?
    • Functional unit of the kidney for urine production
    • *around 1 millions per kidney
  9. Internal anatomy of the kidney) which is more common type of nephrons?
    Cortical nephrons
  10. Internal anatomy of the kidney) location of the cortical nephron (2)
    -located almost entirely in the cortex

    -the loop dips down into the medulla
  11. Internal anatomy of the kidney) juxtamedullary nephron (2)
    -located close to the cortex-medullary junction

    -extends deep into the medulla
  12. Nephron) composed off 2 things
    -renal corpuscle

    -renal tubule
  13. Nephron) renal corpuscles (2)
    -made up of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule (bowman capsule)
  14. Nephron) renal tubule: 3 parts
    -proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

    -nephron loop (loop of Henley)

    -distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
  15. Nephron) renal corpuscles: has 2 poles
    -renal pole

    -vascular pole
  16. Nephron) what is the vasa recta?
    Juxtamedullary nephron loops are covered by venous network
  17. Circulation of the glomerulus) afferent arteriole
    Arteriole that goes into the nephron
  18. Circulation of the glomerulus) efferent arteriole
    • Exits glomerular capsule either become peritubular capillaries or vasa recta
    • *depends if its exiting a cortical or juxtamedullary nephron
  19. Bowman/glomerular capsule) parietal layer
    Forms the wall
  20. Bowman/glomerular capsule) visceral layer
    Forms podocytes with pedicles and filtration slits which cover glomerular capillary
  21. Filtration membrane) 3 layers
    -endothelium of the glomerulus (Fenestrated)

    -joint basement membranes, GBM

    • -visceral layer of bowman capsule
    • *the podocytes
  22. Filtration membrane) what does it allow?
    Allows citrate to pass into bowmans capsule & not macromolecules
  23. Renal tubule and collecting duct) schematic processing (4)
    -proximal convoluted tubule to 

    -loop of Henley to

    -distal convoluted tubule to

    -collecting duct
  24. Renal tubule and collecting duct) is the collecting duct part of nephron?
    No, the last part is DCT
  25. Juxtaglomerular apparatus) what is is important for?
    Blood pressure regulation
  26. Juxtaglomerular apparatus) where is this region located?
    It is located at the vascular pole
  27. Juxtaglomerular apparatus) what does this region contain? (2)
    • -Juxtaglomerular/granular cells
    • *JG cells

    -macula densa of DCT
  28. Juxtaglomerular apparatus) macula dense, what kind of receptor and for what?
    Chemoreceptor for concentration of salt
  29. What does the mesanglial cell do?
    It facilitates communication b/w JG cells & macula densa
  30. 3 parts of renal medulla?
    -medullary (renal) pyramids

    -renal papilla

    -renal columns
  31. Medulla) Papilla of each pyramid contains many
    Collecting ducts
  32. Medulla) Collecting ducts open into a
    Minor calyx
  33. Urinary collecting system) 3 parts to it
    -minor calyx

    -major calyx

    -renal pelvis
  34. Urinary collecting system) schematic on how it proceeds (6)
    -minor calyx to

    -major calyx to

    -renal pelvis to

    -ureter to

    -urinary bladder to

  35. Ureter) fucntion
    Convey urine from kidneys to bladder
  36. Ureter) location
    Ureter in situ are located deep to the gonadal blood vessels
  37. Urinary bladder)  fucntion
    Storage organ for urine
  38. Urinary bladder) which smooth muscle forms the internal urethral sphincter?
    detrusor muscle
  39. Urinary bladder) location
    Immediately posterior to pubic symphysis
  40. Urinary bladder) what is the external urethral sphincter formed by?
    • Skeletal muscle
    • *voluntary
  41. Urethra) fucntion
    Conveys urine from bladder to outside of body
  42. Vasculature of kidneys) enter via
    Hilum of kidney
  43. Vasculature of kidneys) which enter through the hilum? (3)
    -renal artery

    -renal vein

    -renal pelvis
  44. What is micturition ?
    The act of emptying (voiding)  the bladder
  45. Vasculature of kidneys) how many ml stimulates the urge to void?
    200 ml
  46. Micturition) what occurs after 200 ml of urine is accumulated?
    Center in pons receives affront impulse and stimulates parasympathetic system (efferent) to contract detrusor muscle to open internal sphincter
  47. Micturition) external sphincter is under
    Voluntarily control so it can postpones bladder emptying
  48. Micturition) sympathetic does what to detrusor muscle?
  49. Micturition) cycle of urge to pee will resume after
    Another 200 ml
  50. Micturition) what's maximum volume a person can hold?
    500-600 ml
  51. Look at urine storage and micnutriton reflex chart