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What are the 2 functions of urinary system?
-conserves body fluids and electrolytes
-removes waste by the production of urine
4 parts that make the urinary system
Kidney location) At which level is the kidney placed?
Kidney location) it lies retro or intraperitoneal?
- *behind the peritoneal cavity
Coverings of the kidney) what are the 3 coverings of the kidney?
-(renal) fibrous capsule
Internal anatomy of the kidney) renal cortex is the
Outer portion of the kidney
Internal anatomy of the kidney) medulla is
The inner portion of the kidney
Internal anatomy of the kidney) What is nephron?
- Functional unit of the kidney for urine production
- *around 1 millions per kidney
Internal anatomy of the kidney) which is more common type of nephrons?
Internal anatomy of the kidney) location of the cortical nephron (2)
-located almost entirely in the cortex
-the loop dips down into the medulla
Internal anatomy of the kidney) juxtamedullary nephron (2)
-located close to the cortex-medullary junction
-extends deep into the medulla
Nephron) composed off 2 things
Nephron) renal corpuscles (2)
-made up of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule (bowman capsule)
Nephron) renal tubule: 3 parts
-proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
-nephron loop (loop of Henley)
-distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Nephron) renal corpuscles: has 2 poles
Nephron) what is the vasa recta?
Juxtamedullary nephron loops are covered by venous network
Circulation of the glomerulus) afferent arteriole
Arteriole that goes into the nephron
Circulation of the glomerulus) efferent arteriole
- Exits glomerular capsule either become peritubular capillaries or vasa recta
- *depends if its exiting a cortical or juxtamedullary nephron
Bowman/glomerular capsule) parietal layer
Forms the wall
Bowman/glomerular capsule) visceral layer
Forms podocytes with pedicles and filtration slits which cover glomerular capillary
Filtration membrane) 3 layers
-endothelium of the glomerulus (Fenestrated)
-joint basement membranes, GBM
- -visceral layer of bowman capsule
- *the podocytes
Filtration membrane) what does it allow?
Allows citrate to pass into bowmans capsule & not macromolecules
Renal tubule and collecting duct) schematic processing (4)
-proximal convoluted tubule to
-loop of Henley to
-distal convoluted tubule to
Renal tubule and collecting duct) is the collecting duct part of nephron?
No, the last part is DCT
Juxtaglomerular apparatus) what is is important for?
Blood pressure regulation
Juxtaglomerular apparatus) where is this region located?
It is located at the vascular pole
Juxtaglomerular apparatus) what does this region contain? (2)
- -Juxtaglomerular/granular cells
- *JG cells
-macula densa of DCT
Juxtaglomerular apparatus) macula dense, what kind of receptor and for what?
Chemoreceptor for concentration of salt
What does the mesanglial cell do?
It facilitates communication b/w JG cells & macula densa
3 parts of renal medulla?
-medullary (renal) pyramids
Medulla) Papilla of each pyramid contains many
Medulla) Collecting ducts open into a
Urinary collecting system) 3 parts to it
Urinary collecting system) schematic on how it proceeds (6)
-minor calyx to
-major calyx to
-renal pelvis to
-urinary bladder to
Convey urine from kidneys to bladder
Ureter in situ are located deep to the gonadal blood vessels
Urinary bladder) fucntion
Storage organ for urine
Urinary bladder) which smooth muscle forms the internal urethral sphincter?
Urinary bladder) location
Immediately posterior to pubic symphysis
Urinary bladder) what is the external urethral sphincter formed by?
- Skeletal muscle
Conveys urine from bladder to outside of body
Vasculature of kidneys) enter via
Hilum of kidney
Vasculature of kidneys) which enter through the hilum? (3)
What is micturition ?
The act of emptying (voiding) the bladder
Vasculature of kidneys) how many ml stimulates the urge to void?
Micturition) what occurs after 200 ml of urine is accumulated?
Center in pons receives affront impulse and stimulates parasympathetic system (efferent) to contract detrusor muscle to open internal sphincter
Micturition) external sphincter is under
Voluntarily control so it can postpones bladder emptying
Micturition) sympathetic does what to detrusor muscle?
Micturition) cycle of urge to pee will resume after
Another 200 ml
Micturition) what's maximum volume a person can hold?
Look at urine storage and micnutriton reflex chart