Plants Bio-103

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Plants Bio-103
2015-03-30 19:48:34
biology plants

Plants and parts of plants.
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  1. Muticellularity
    A group of cells living together that have specialized functions and cannot live independently.
  2. alternation of generations
    In plants, refers to the fact that there are two distinct multicellular stages in the life cycle.
  3. gametophyte
    The gamete-producing multicellular stage in the plant life cycle.
  4. sporophyte
    The spore-producing multicellular stage in the plant life cycle.
  5. The sporophyte produces spores in organs called
  6. Gametes are produced within organs called

    • Female gametangia, called archegonia, produce eggs and are the site of fertilization

    • Male gametangia, called antheridia, are the site of sperm production and release
  7. Secondary growth
    • The process through which plants thicken
    • • It occurs at the Lateral meristems
    • • In woody plants, primary and secondary growth occur simultaneously but in different locations
    • • adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem
  8. Primary growth
    • The process through which shoots and roots elongate
    • • It occurs at the Apical meristems
  9. Apical meristems
    these are located at the tips of roots and shoots and at the auxiliary buds of shoots

    The root cap protects the apical meristerm as the root pushes through the soil 

    Primary growing point of the vertical plant.
  10. Apical dominance
    helps to maintain dormancy in most non apical buds, allowing the plant to grow mainly from the apical bud

    • Apical bud inhibits growth of axillary buds.

    • Degree of inhibition determined partially by the distance between the apical and auxiliary buds

    • Not a permanent condition; if an animal start seating or sunlight is more intense, auxiliary buds break dormancy and start growing.
  11. Lateral meristems
    Vascular cambium and Cork cambium
  12. Cork cambium
    A lateral meristem. Replaces the epidermis with periderm, which is stronger.

    • • Deposits waxy suberin in its walls, then dies
    • • Gives rise to two tissues:
    • • Phelloderm: thin parenchyma cell layer that formsto interior of cork cambium.
    • • Cork cells that accumulate to exterior of cork cambium
  13. Vascular cambium
    • • Cylinder of meristematic cells one cell layer thick.
    • • Develop from undifferentiated parenchyma cells Adds Xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
    • The vascular cambium is a cylinder of meristematic cells one cell layer thick• It develops from undifferentiated parenchyma cells
  14. Most plants can grow throughout their life; this is called
    • indeterminate growth.
    • Caused by meristems using undifferentiated stem cells.
  15. determinate growth
    Most animals stop growing once they reach a certain age

    This happens in some plant organs also
  16. Differentiation
    Region of stem or root in which cells mature and differentiate into specialized cells and tissues.

    Parenchyma Cells
  17. Characteristics shared by plants and green algae
    – Structure of flagellated sperm (some land plants have similar sperm than charophytes)

    – Formation of a phragmoplast (divides the daughter cell nuclei during cell division)

    – Sporopollenin molecules on plant spores and charophyte zygote surfacesthat prevent exposed zygotes fromdrying out



  18. Characteristics of land plants which are not present in charophytes (green algae)
    I. Alternation of generations (with multicellular, dependent embryos)

    1. Walled spores produced in sporangia. Multicellular gametangia

    II. Apical meristems
  19. 3 types of plants tissues
    • Dermal: provides protective outer covering for roots, stems and leaves. epidermis.

    • Vascular: transports food, water, hormones and minerals inside of plant organs. Alsoprovides structural support. xylem and pheolum

    • Ground: majority of the plant body; three tissue types: parenchyma, collenchyma,sclerenchyma.
  20. Adaptions of plants that gave them an evolutionary advantage.
    Pollen are microspores who have no need for water for fertilization.

    Seeds (survive better than unprotected spores)(can lay dormant through droughts)

    Vascular tissues can transport water, sugar, and nutrients allowing plants to grow taller for more sunlight
  21. Role of plants in human nutrition and threats in plant diversity
    Plants the the main source of food for human consumption. Some plants have medicinal properties.

    • Destruction of habitat is causing extinction of manyplant species
  22. What are the 3 main plant organs?
    • Roots

    • Stems


    • They are organized into a root system and a shoot system

    • Roots rely on sugar produced by photosynthesis inthe shoot system, and shoots rely on water andminerals absorbed by the root system
  23. What are the 4 characteristics of roots?
    Seedless vascular plants have a fibrous root system characterized by thin lateral roots with no main root

    A taproot system consists of one main vertical root that gives rise to lateral roots, or branch roots

    Adventitious roots, A root that grows from somewhere other than the base of the plant or another root.

    In most plants, absorption of water and minerals occurs near the root hairs
  24. parenchyma cells
    • Part of ground tissue. 
    • Metabolism; photosynthesis; storage ;regeneration

    Most Common Cells
  25. collenchyma cells
    Ground tissue. Mechanical support to leaves and growing stems
  26. sclerenchyma cells
    Part of ground tissue. Mechanical support and protection
  27. Xylem cells
    Part of the Vascular system. The wood rings of a tree. Dies at maturity. Conducts water and minerals from roots to shoots; provides support for plant.
  28. Phloem Cells
    Part of the vascular system. Conducts sugars and nutrients from sources to sinks
  29. Primary and secondary
    Primary growth of a plant is vertical and the secondary growth is lateral.
  30. Gynosperm life cycle
  31. Angiosperm life cycle