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A group of cells living together that have specialized functions and cannot live independently.
alternation of generations
In plants, refers to the fact that there are two distinct multicellular stages in the life cycle.
The gamete-producing multicellular stage in the plant life cycle.
The spore-producing multicellular stage in the plant life cycle.
The sporophyte produces spores in organs called
Gametes are produced within organs called
• Female gametangia, called archegonia, produce eggs and are the site of fertilization
• Male gametangia, called antheridia, are the site of sperm production and release
- The process through which plants thicken
- • It occurs at the Lateral meristems
- • In woody plants, primary and secondary growth occur simultaneously but in different locations
- • adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem
- The process through which shoots and roots elongate
- • It occurs at the Apical meristems
these are located at the tips of roots and shoots and at the auxiliary buds of shoots
The root cap protects the apical meristerm as the root pushes through the soil
Primary growing point of the vertical plant.
helps to maintain dormancy in most non apical buds, allowing the plant to grow mainly from the apical bud
• Apical bud inhibits growth of axillary buds.
• Degree of inhibition determined partially by the distance between the apical and auxiliary buds
• Not a permanent condition; if an animal start seating or sunlight is more intense, auxiliary buds break dormancy and start growing.
Vascular cambium and Cork cambium
A lateral meristem. Replaces the epidermis with periderm, which is stronger.
- • Deposits waxy suberin in its walls, then dies
- • Gives rise to two tissues:
- • Phelloderm: thin parenchyma cell layer that formsto interior of cork cambium.
- • Cork cells that accumulate to exterior of cork cambium
- • Cylinder of meristematic cells one cell layer thick.
- • Develop from undifferentiated parenchyma cells Adds Xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
- The vascular cambium is a cylinder of meristematic cells one cell layer thick• It develops from undifferentiated parenchyma cells
Most plants can grow throughout their life; this is called
- indeterminate growth.
- Caused by meristems using undifferentiated stem cells.
Most animals stop growing once they reach a certain age
This happens in some plant organs also
Region of stem or root in which cells mature and differentiate into specialized cells and tissues.
Characteristics shared by plants and green algae
– Structure of flagellated sperm (some land plants have similar sperm than charophytes)
– Formation of a phragmoplast (divides the daughter cell nuclei during cell division)
– Sporopollenin molecules on plant spores and charophyte zygote surfacesthat prevent exposed zygotes fromdrying out
Characteristics of land plants which are not present in charophytes (green algae)
I. Alternation of generations (with multicellular, dependent embryos)
1. Walled spores produced in sporangia. Multicellular gametangia
II. Apical meristems
3 types of plants tissues
• Dermal: provides protective outer covering for roots, stems and leaves. epidermis.
• Vascular: transports food, water, hormones and minerals inside of plant organs. Alsoprovides structural support. xylem and pheolum
• Ground: majority of the plant body; three tissue types: parenchyma, collenchyma,sclerenchyma.
Adaptions of plants that gave them an evolutionary advantage.
Pollen are microspores who have no need for water for fertilization.
Seeds (survive better than unprotected spores)(can lay dormant through droughts)
Vascular tissues can transport water, sugar, and nutrients allowing plants to grow taller for more sunlight
Role of plants in human nutrition and threats in plant diversity
Plants the the main source of food for human consumption. Some plants have medicinal properties.
• Destruction of habitat is causing extinction of manyplant species
What are the 3 main plant organs?
• They are organized into a root system and a shoot system
• Roots rely on sugar produced by photosynthesis inthe shoot system, and shoots rely on water andminerals absorbed by the root system
What are the 4 characteristics of roots?
Seedless vascular plants have a fibrous root system characterized by thin lateral roots with no main root
A taproot system consists of one main vertical root that gives rise to lateral roots, or branch roots
Adventitious roots, A root that grows from somewhere other than the base of the plant or another root.
In most plants, absorption of water and minerals occurs near the root hairs
- Part of ground tissue.
- Metabolism; photosynthesis; storage ;regeneration
Most Common Cells
Ground tissue. Mechanical support to leaves and growing stems
Part of ground tissue. Mechanical support and protection
Part of the Vascular system. The wood rings of a tree. Dies at maturity. Conducts water and minerals from roots to shoots; provides support for plant.
Part of the vascular system. Conducts sugars and nutrients from sources to sinks
Primary and secondary
Primary growth of a plant is vertical and the secondary growth is lateral.