Medical Language

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Medical Language
2015-04-14 10:34:40
Urinary System

Chapter 7,8,&9
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  1. What nitrogenous waste products are released into the bloodstream when foods containing proteins are used by cells in the body
    Urea, creatinine, and uric acid
  2. Cali/o, calic/o
    Calyx (cakix); cup-shaped
  3. Cyst/o
    Urinary Bladder
  4. Glomerul/o
  5. Meat/o
  6. Nephr/o
  7. Pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  8. Trigon/o
    trigone (region of the bladder)
  9. Ureter/o
  10. Urethr/o
  11. Vesic/o
    urinary bladder
  12. albumin/o
    albumin (a protein in the blood)
  13. azot/o
  14. bacteri/o
  15. dips/o
  16. kal/o
  17. ket/o keton/o
    ketone bodies(ketoacids and acetone)
  18. Lith/o
  19. natr/o
  20. noct/o
  21. olig/o
  22. -poietin
    substance that forms
  23. py/o
  24. -tripsy
  25. ur/o
    urine (urea)
  26. urin/o
  27. -uria
    urination; urine conditon
  28. Electrolytes such as _______ and _______ are small molecules that conduct an electrical charge
    sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)
  29. What are electrolytes necessary?
    Proper functioning of the muscle and nerve cell.
  30. What are 3 functions of the kidneys?
    Release hormones such as renin (re-nin) and erythropoietin (e-rith-ro-poy-e-tin) and calciferol... balance water and electrolytes... remove nitrogenous wastes such as Urea, creatinine, and uric acid...  also Degrade and eliminate hormones from the bloodstream.
  31. what is the function of the hormone reni?
    To raise blood pressure (to keep blood moving through the kidney).
  32. What is the function the hormone erythropoietin?
    To stimulate red blood cell production in the bone marrow.
  33. the kidneys also secretes calciferol. what is calciferol?
    An active form of vitamin D, necessary for the absorption of calcium from the intestine.
  34. How do kidneys produce urine?
    Blood enters the kidneys through the right or left renal arteries

    then arterioles carry blood to the capillaries

    and the glomeruli filter the blood
  35. What are steps in the formation of urine
    • 1. glomerular filtration
    • 2. tubular reabsorption
    • 3. tubular secretion
  36. What is a arteriole?
    Small artery
  37. what is calciferol?
    Active form of vitamin D, secreted by the kidney
  38. calyx or calix (plural: calyces or calices)
    Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis. the term comes from Greek, kalux meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud.
  39. catheter
    tube for injecting or removing fluids.
  40. Cortex
    outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex)
  41. creatinine
    nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) cretinine from the blood.
  42. electrolyte
    chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water and is necessary for functioning the muscle of the nerves.
  43. filtration
    process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter.
  44. erythroprotein (EPO)
    Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow -poietin means a substance that forms
  45. glomerular capsule
    enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. it is also known as the bowmens capsule and it collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
  46. glomerulus (plural: glomeruli)
    tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels in the kidney)
  47. hilum
    depression in am organ where blood vessels  and nerves enter and leave. hilum comes from the Latin meaning the small thing.
  48. Kidney
    • One of two bean-shaped organs that filter
    • nitrogenous waste from the bloodstream to form urine
  49. meatus
    Opening or canal
  50. medulla
    • Inner region of an organ; the term comes
    • from the Latin, medulla, meaning marrow
  51. •nephron
    • The functional unit of the kidney
    • where filtration, reabsorption,
    • and secretion take
    • place
  52. nitrogenous waste
    Substance containing nitrogenand excreted in urine;examples are urea, uric acid,and creatinine
  53. Potassium (k+)
    An electrolyte regulated by the kidney
  54. reabsorption
    Renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
  55. renal artery
    Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
  56. Central collection region in  the kidney
    renal pelvis
  57. renal tubules
    Microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
  58. renal vein
    Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney
  59. renin
    Hormone secreted by the kidney that raises blood pressure
  60. sodium (Na+)
    An electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; a common form of sodium is sodium chloride (salt)
  61. trigone
    Triangular area in the urinary bladder
  62. Major
    nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
  63. ureter
    One of two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  64. urethra
    Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
  65. uric acid
    nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
  66. Process of expelling urine; also called micturition
    Process of expelling urine; also called micturition
  67. hydronephrosis
    Condition of excess fluid (water) in the kidney
  68. Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by
    renal calculi (stones
  69. Tests included in a urinalysis
    Color Appearance pH Protein & well as Specific gravity Ketone bodies Sediment Phenylketonuria Bilirubin
  70. Pathologic Conditions
    • Glomerulonephritis
    • Interstitial nephritis
    • Nephrolithiasis
    • Nephrotic syndrome
    • Polycystic kidneys (PKD)
  71. Hypernephroma)
    Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
  72. conditions associated with Pathologic Conditions
    • Diabetes insipidus (DI)
    • Diabetes mellitus (DM)
  73. Laboratory tests
    Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)Creatinine clearance test
  74. Clinical procedures X-ray Studies
    • CT urography
    • Kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
    • Renal angiography
    • Retrograde pyelogram (RP)
    • Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
  75. Voiding cystourethrogram
    (VCUG)showing a normal female urethra. The bladder is filled with contrast material, followed by x-ray imaging.
  76. Clinical procedures
    • Ultrasound
    • examination
    • ØUltrasonography:
    • imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves

    • Radioactive
    • studies

    • ØRadioisotope scan: image
    • of kidney after injecting a radioisotope into the bloodstream
  77. Clinical proceduresMagnetic imaging
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) urography: A changing magnetic field produces images of an organ and surrounding structures in three planes of the body
  78. Other clinical procedures



    • •Renal
    • angioplasty

    • •Renal
    • biopsy

    • •Renal
    • transplantation

    • •Urinary
    • catheterization
  79. Cytoscopy
    direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope
  80. ADH
    Antidiuretic hormone
  81. ARF
    Acute renal failure
  82. ARI
    Acute renal injury
  83. BILI
  84. BUN
    Blood urea nitrogen
  85. CRCL=

    Creatinine clearance

     Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysi
  86. C&S
    Culture and sensitivity testing
  87. eGFR
    Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  88. PH
    Potential hydrogen; degree of acidity or alkalinity
  89. VCUG
    Voiding cystourethrogram
  90. wilms tumor
    malignant tumor of the kidney occurring during childhood. it may be treated with surgery radiation therapy,and chemotherapy
  91. hydr/o
  92. dips/o
  93. kal/o
  94. ket/o; keton/o
    ketones; acetones
  95. The male sex cell is called a
    spermatozoon, or sperm cell
  96. The sperm cell carries its nuclear hereditary material, or chromosomes, in its
    head region.
  97. The tail consists of a flagellum
    which makes the sperm cell mobile.
  98. The organs of the male reproductive system are designed to
    produce and release billions of sperm cells throughout the man’s lifetime.
  99. The hormone called testosterone is responsible for the bodily characteristics of the male such as
    as beard, pubic hair, and deeper voice).
  100. The passage of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the outside of the body
    • seminferous tubules,
    • episisymis
    • vas dererens
    • urethra penis
  101. bulbourethral glands
    Pair of exocrine glands near male urethra; Cowper glands
  102. ejaculation
    Ejection of sperm and fluid from male urethra
  103. ejaculatory duct
    Tube through which semen enters the male urethra
  104. epididymis (pl.: epididymides)
    One of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes above each testis that stores and carries sperm to the vas deferens
  105. erectile dysfunction
    Inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence
  106. flagellum
    Hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile
  107. glans penis
    Sensitive tip of the penis; comparable to the clitoris in the female
  108. interstitial cells of the testes
    Specialized cells adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes; produce testosterone; also called Leydig cells
  109. parenchymal tissue
    Essential distinctive cells of an organ
  110. penis
    Male external organ of reproduction
  111. perineum
    External region between the anus and scrotum in the male
  112. prepuce
    Foreskin; fold of skin covering tip of penis
  113. prostate gland
    Exocrine gland at base of male urinary bladder; secretes fluid part of semen into urethra during ejaculation
  114. scrotum
    External sac that contains the testes
  115. semen
    Spermatozoa and seminal fluid discharged from the urethra during ejaculation
  116. seminal vesicles
    Paired sac-like exocrine glands that secrete fluid into the vas deferens
  117. seminiferous tubules
    Narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes
  118. stromal tissue
    Supportive, connective tissue or an organ; stroma
  119. sterilization
    Procedure that removes a person’s ability to produce or release reproductive cells through removal of testicles, vasectomy, or oophorectomy
  120. spermatozoon (pl.: permatozoa)
    Sperm cell
  121. testis (plural: testes)
    Male gonad (testicle) that produces spermatozoa and testosterone
  122. testosterone
    Hormone secreted by interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics
  123. vas deferens
    Narrow tube carrying sperm from the epididymis toward the urethra; ductus deferens
  124. andr/o
    • male
    • glans penis
  125. cry/o
  126. crypt/o
  127. epididymis/o
  128. gon/o
  129. orch/o,

    testis, testicle
  130. pen/o
  131. penis
    prostate gland
  132. sperm/o


    spermatozoa, semen


    testis, testicle
  133. varic/o
    varicose veins
  134. vas/o
    vessel duct
  135. zo/o
    animal life
  136. one
  137. -pexy
    fixation, put in place
  138. fixation, put in place
    new opening
  139. Hypospadias
    Surgical repair involves exciding a portion of the prepuce, wrapping it around a catheter, suturing it to the distal part of the urethra, bringing it to the end of the penis
  140. STDs
    ChlamydiaGonorrheaHerpes genitalisHuman papilloma virus (HPV)Syphilis
  141. Laboratory tests
    ØPSA test

    ØSemen analysis
  142. Clinical proceduresTransurethral resection of the prostate
  143. Clinical procedures
  144. BPH
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  145. DRE
    digital rectal examination
  146. GU
  147. HSV
    herpes simplex virus
  148. PIN
    prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
  149. PSA
    prostate-specific antigen
  150. Sexual reproduction
    • ØThis is the union of the nuclei of ovum
    • and sperm cell.

    ØOvum and sperm cells are called gametes.

    • ØEach gamete contains half the number of
    • chromosomes of a normal body cell.
  151. Gametes (ovum and sperm cell)
    Gametes are produced in the gonads.

    Female gonads are the ovaries; male gonads are the testes.
  152. Sexual reproduction
    Gametes are produced in the gonads.

    Female gonads are the ovaries; male gonads are the testes.
  153. Fertilization
    • ØAn ovum leaves the ovaries and travels
    • through the fallopian tube.

    • ØFertilization takes place if sperm cells
    • are present and unite with the ovum.

    • ØThe fertilized egg implants then divides
    • to form a ball of cells, called a zygote (and later an embryo and then a
    • fetus).
  154. Menstruation and Pregnancy
    • Ø1-5      Blood cells, endometrial cells, and
    • glandular    

    •                       secretions discharge from
    • the body.


    • ØDay 6-12   
    • Estrogen aids repair of endometrium. 

    •                          The ovum grows in the
    • follicle.


    • ØDay 13-14 
    • The egg leaves the ovary and passes through

        the fallopian tube.


    • ØDay 15-28  
    • The corpus luteum secretes progesterone;

    •                        the uterus lining builds
    • up.
  155. Pregnancy
    • ØIf
    • fertilization occurs, the egg implants in the uterine endometrium.

    • ØThe
    • placenta forms, attaches to the uterine wall.

    • ØAmnion
    • holds the fetus in an amniotic cavity.

    • ØNutrients,
    • oxygen, and wastes exchange between the fetus and mother.

    • ØThe
    • placenta produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
  156. Pregnancy
    • ØProgesterone
    • maintains placenta development.

    • ØThe
    • uterus expands as the fetus grows.

    • ØNormal
    • delivery fetal position is cephalic presentation (head first).
  157. Three phases of labor
    1.Dilation and thinning of the cervix

    2.Birth of the infant

    3.Delivery of the placenta
  158. Hormonal Interactions
    • •The
    • pituitary secretes:

    • ØFollicle-stimulating
    • hormone (FSH)

    • ØLuteinizing
    • hormone (LH)

    • •The
    • pituitary stops producing FSH and LH

    • ØDuring
    • pregnancy

    • ØWith
    • oral contraceptives
  159. Menopause
    • ØGradual
    • ending of the menstrual cycle

    • ØNormally
    • begins between ages 45 and 55

    • ØFalling
    • estrogen levels

    • Option for estrogen replacement therapy
    • (careful consideration of risks required
  160. adnexae uteri
    Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and supporting ligaments
  161. amnion
    Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus
  162. areola
    Dark-pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple
  163. Bartholin glands
    Small, mucus-secreting exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice; named for Caspar Bartholin, a Danish anatomist who described them in 1637
  164. cervix
    Lower, neck-like portion of the uterus
  165. chorion
    Outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo
  166. coitus
    Sexual intercourse; copulation
  167. corpus luteum
    Empty ovarian follicle; secretes progesterone after release of egg cell; means “yellow body”
  168. cul-de-sac
    Region in lower abdomen, midway between the rectum and the uterus
  169. embryo
    Stage in prenatal development from 2 to 8 weeks
  170. endometrium
    Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus
  171. fallopian tube
    One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus; oviduct; named for Gabriello Fallopia, an Italian anatomist
  172. estrogen
    Hormone produced by the ovaries that promotes female secondary sex characteristics
  173. fetus
    Stage in prenatal development from 8 to 39 or 40 weeks
  174. fimbriae (sing.: fimbria)
    Finger- or fringe-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes
  175. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the ovum
  176. gestation
    Period from fertilization of the ovum to birth
  177. gamete
    Male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum
  178. gonad
    Female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis
  179. gynecology
    Study of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts
  180. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    Hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone
  181. hymen
    Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina
  182. lactiferous ducts
    Tubes that carry milk within the breast
  183. luteinizing hormone
    Secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation
  184. mammary papilla
    Nipple of the breast
  185. menarche
    Beginning of the first menstrual period and ability to reproduce
  186. myometrium
    Muscle layer of the uterus
  187. neonatology
    Branch of medicine that studies the disorders and care of the newborn (neonate)
  188. orifice
    An opening
  189. ovarian follicle
    Developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary
  190. ovary
    One of a pair of female organs on each side of the pelvis; almond-shaped; produced egg cells and hormones
  191. ovum (pl.: ova)
    Mature egg cell (female gamete)
  192. parturition
    Act of giving birth
  193. perineum
    Area between the anus and the vagina in females
  194. pituitary gland
    Endocrine gland at the base of the brain that produces hormones to stimulate the ovaries; also regulates other endocrine organs
  195. progesterone
    Hormone produced by corpus luteum in ovary and placenta of pregnant women
  196. uterus
    Hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which embryo and fetus develop, and from which menstruation occurs
  197. uterine serosa
    Outermost layer surrounding the uterus
  198. vagina
    Muscular, mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body
  199. vulva
    External female genitalia; includes the labia, hymen, clitoris, and vaginal orifice
  200. zygote
    The stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation to 2 weeks
  201. •chori/o 

  202. amni/o
  203. colp/o
  204. culd/o
  205. episi/o
  206. galact/o or lact/o
  207. hyster/o
    uterus, womb
  208. metr/o
  209. men/o
    menses, menstruation
  210. myom/o
    muscle tumor
  211. obstetr/o
  212. o/o, or ov/o
  213. oophor/o
  214. perine/o
  215. phor/o
    to bear
  216. salping/o
    fallopian tubes
  217. -arche
  218. gravida, -cyesis
  219. parous
    to bear, bring forth
  220. salpinx
    uterine tube
  221. -rrhea
  222. -tocia
    labor, birth
  223. -version
    act of turning
  224. intra-
  225. nulli-
    no, not, none
  226. primi-
  227. Endometriosis
    Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
  228. Carcinoma of the cervix
    Malignant cells within the cervix
  229. Pathology: Gynecological and Breast Breast
    • Carcinoma of the breast
    • Fibrocystic disease
  230. Ovaries
    • ØOvarian
    • carcinoma (cancer)

    • •Malignant
    • tumor of the ovary

    • ØOvarian
    • cysts

    • •Collections
    • of fluid within a sac in the ovary
  231. Fallopian tubes
    • ØPelvic
    • inflammatory disease

    •Examples:  salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis

    • •Leading
    • causes of PID are sexually transmitted diseases
  232. AFP
    Alpha-fetoprotein-high levels in amniotic fluid of fetus or maternal serum
  233. cx
  234. d&c
    Dilation (dilation and curettage
  235. FSH
    Follicle-stimulating hormone
  236. FHR
    Fetal heart rate
  237. IUD
    Intrauterine device; contraceptive
  238. para 2-0-1-2
    woman’s reproductive history: 2 full-term infants, 0 preterm, 1 abortion, and 2 living children
  239. IVF
    In vitro fertilization
  240. TAH-BSO
    Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy