Human Anatomy Chapter 21 Blood

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dahotstuff30
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Human Anatomy Chapter 21 Blood
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2015-04-02 15:54:14
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Human Anatomy Chapter 21 Blood
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  1. All of the following are functions of blood except

    A)transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    B)synthesis of vitamins
    C)defense against infection
    D)regulation of body temperature
    B)synthesis of vitamins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What protects the body against blood loss?

    A)clots formed by clusters of leukocytes
    B)clots formed by platelets and blood proteins
    C)masses of erythrocytes and erythrocyte fragments
    D)constriction of capillaries in the damaged area
    B)clots formed by platelets and blood proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The two primary components of whole blood are

    A)blood cells and cell fragments
    B)formed elements and dissolved proteins
    C)serum and formed elements
    D)plasma and formed elements
    D)plasma and formed elements
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What are the formed elements of blood?

    A)erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
    B)the buffy coat and plasma proteins
    C)blood cells, cell fragments, and plasma
    D)all compounds synthesized by the blood
    A)erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The most abundant compound in blood plasma, accounting for about 92% of the total volume, is

    A)sodium chloride
    B)oxygen
    C)gamma-globulin
    D)water
    D)water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The three major classes of plasma proteins are

    A)albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
    B)agglutinins, agglutinogens, and lipoproteins
    C)fibrin, fibrinogen, and regulatory proteins
    D)alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulins
    A)albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Immunoglobulins, soluble proteins produced by some of our defense cells to protect the body against pathogens, are also called

    A)antibodies
    B)alpha-globulins
    C)beta-globulins
    D)agglutinogens
    A)antibodies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The plasma protein ____________, an essential component of the clotting system, can be converted into long, insoluble strands of fibrin.

    A)gamma-globulin
    B)transferrin
    C)fibrinogen
    D)albumin
    C)fibrinogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. All of the following are true of erythrocytes except

    A)their plasma membrane contains many surface antigens
    B)they transport oxygen from the lungs to body tissues
    C)when mature, they have no nucleus or other organelles
    D)they have a finite life span averaging only about 60 days
    D)they have a finite life span averaging only about 60 days
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Stacks of erythrocytes called ____________ can pass through blood vessels barely larger than the diameter of a single erythrocyte.

    A)colloids
    B)columns
    C)rouleaux
    D)all of the above
    C)rouleaux
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Abundant molecules of ____________ give erythrocytes both their color and their ability to transport oxygen.

    A)beta-globulin
    B)agglutinogen
    C)fibrinogen
    D)hemoglobin
    D)hemoglobin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Projecting from the surface of its plasma membrane, each erythrocyte has numerous molecules called surface antigens, or

    A)agglutinogens
    B)agglutinins
    C)specific granules
    D)specific antibodies
    A)agglutinogens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. In terms of the ABO blood group, which blood type makes a person a "universal recipient?"

    A)B
    B)A
    C)O
    D)AB
    D)AB
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Individuals with type O blood lack surface antigens A and B, and so their plasma contains

    A)anti-A antibodies
    B)anti-B antibodies
    C)both of the above
    D)neither a nor b
    C)both of the above
  15. Unlike those of the ABO blood group, antibodies to the Rh factor are produced only after an ____________ individual is exposed to ____________.
    A)Rh positive; Rh surface antigens
    B)Rh negative; RhoGAM
    C)Rh negative; Rh positive blood
    D)Rh positive; Rh negative blood
    C)Rh negative; Rh positive blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which formed elements help initiate an immune response and defend the body against pathogens?

    A)platelets
    B)leukocytes
    C)erythrocytes
    D)all of the above
    B)leukocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Leukocytes exhibit ____________, an attraction to molecules released by damaged cells, dead cells, or pathogens.

    A)leukopenia
    B)chemotaxis
    C)diapedesis
    D)leukocytosis
    B)chemotaxis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Leukocytes are divided into two classes based on the presence or absence of visible organelles called

    A)ribosome clusters
    B)mitochondria
    C)specific granules
    D)polymorphic nuclei
    C)specific granules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The three types of granulocytes, named according to how their granules stain, are

    A)monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils
    B)neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
    C)lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils
    D)eosinophils, erythrocytes, and neutrophils
    B)neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Although they typically constitute 20-25% of all leukocytes, most ____________ reside in lymphatic tissues rather than blood.

    A)basophils
    B)lymphocytes
    C)neutrophils
    D)monocytes
    B)lymphocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following is not a characteristic of neutrophils?

    A)most numerous type of leukocyte in the blood
    B)kill bacteria by secreting an enzyme called lysozyme
    C)typically remain in circulation for several weeks to months
    D)leave the blood to phagocytize pathogens in tissue spaces
    C)typically remain in circulation for several weeks to months
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which leukocytes phagocytize allergens and chemically attack parasitic worms?

    A)basophils
    B)eosinophils
    C)lymphocytes
    D)neutrophils
    B)eosinophils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Monocytes are agranulocytes that leave the circulation after a few days to become

    A)microphages
    B)macrophages
    C)megakaryocytes
    D)lymphocytes
    B)macrophages
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Lymphocytes that manage and direct an immune response, in some cases directly attacking foreign cells and virus-infected cells, are classified as

    A)B-lymphocytes
    B)T-lymphocytes
    C)plasma cells
    D)natural killer cells
    B)T-lymphocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which of the following phrases does not accurately describe platelets?

    A)irregular, membrane-enclosed cellular fragments
    B)continually produced in the thymus by progenitor cells
    C)normally about 120,000-300,000 per µl of adult blood
    D)less than one-fourth the size of an erythrocyte
    B)continually produced in the thymus by progenitor cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The word root thrombos, as in "thrombocyte," most nearly means
    A)clot
    B)cluster
    C)leak
    D)plug
    A)clot
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. "Colony-stimulating factors" that influence the maturation and division of blood stem cells include which of the following?

    A)multi-CSF and G-CSF
    B)GM-CSF and M-CSF
    C)thrombopoietin and erythropoietin
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  28. Erythrocytes are normally produced at the rate of about 3 million per

    A)second
    B)hour
    C)minute
    D)day
    A)second
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The continual process of producing new formed elements of all kinds is called

    A)hemopoiesis
    B)erythropoiesis
    C)hemolysis
    D)leukopoiesis
    A)hemopoiesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Erythropoiesis occurs in

    A)red bone marrow
    B)yellow bone marrow
    C)lymphatic tissues
    D)all of the above
    A)red bone marrow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Serum is the fraction of plasma remaining after the removal of  

    A)electrolytes and respiratory gases
    B)both a and b
    C)plasma proteins
    D)nutrients and wastes
    C)plasma proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Salts and protein molecules in blood help prevent excess fluid loss from the plasma by maintaining the proper ____________; this is necessary because water and solutes must be able to "leak" across capillary walls to complete another major function of blood, ____________.

    A)osmotic balance; transportation
    B)filtration rate; thermoregulation
    C)hydrostatic pressure; immune protection
    D)water tension; chemoregulation
    A)osmotic balance; transportation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. All types of blood cells arise indirectly from

    A)progenitor cells
    B)lymphatic stem cells
    C)hemocytoblasts
    D)myeloid stem cells
    C)hemocytoblasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Given that the liver synthesizes most of the plasma proteins, severe liver disorders can be expected to cause

    A)decreased osmotic pressure of the blood plasma
    B)less efficient transport of iron ions and lipids
    C)diminished clotting ability
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  35. Myeloid stem cells give rise to three separate lineages of ____________ that differentiate into erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and ____________.

    A)lymphoid stem cells; lymphocytes and NK cells
    B)pluripotent cells; agranulocytes
    C)progenitor cells; granulocytes and monocytes
    D)hemocytoblasts; leukocytes
    C)progenitor cells; granulocytes and monocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Immature erythrocytes that still have nuclei and are actively synthesizing hemoglobin are called

    A)progenitor cells
    B)erythroblasts
    C)normoblasts
    D)reticulocytes
    B)erythroblasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. As the final step in the maturation process, ____________ lose their remaining ribosomes to become erythrocytes.

    A)reticulocytes
    B)proerythroblasts
    C)normoblasts
    D)erythroblasts
    A)reticulocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Athletes temporarily increase their hematocrit without increasing oxygen-carrying capacity whenever they

    A)train at high altitudes
    B)dope their blood
    C)become dehydrated
    D)all of the above
    C)become dehydrated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The heme groups from old erythrocytes are stripped of their iron and eventually recycled into a substance that helps to


    A)transport oxygen in the interstitial fluid
    B)emulsify fats in the digestive tract
    C)produce new erythrocytes in the red bone marrow
    D)regulate pH in the blood plasma
    B)emulsify fats in the digestive tract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. How is hemolytic disease of the newborn prevented in an Rh negative woman who is pregnant with an Rh positive fetus?

    A)Administration of special immunoglobulins will prevent the mother from developing Rh antibodies.
    B)Administration of Rh antibodies will turn the fetus Rh negative.
    C)Transfusion of blood will make the mother Rh positive.
    D)The woman must not have a second child.
    A)Administration of special immunoglobulins will prevent the mother from developing Rh antibodies.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The types of ____________ are named for their specific affinities to chemical stains.

    A)agranulocytes
    B)granulocytes
    C)lymphocytes
    D)erythrocytes
    B)granulocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. The most abundant type of circulating leukocyte, which has a multilobed nucleus and cytoplasm packed with pale-staining granules, is the

    A)basophil
    B)eosinophil
    C)lymphocyte
    D)neutrophil
    D)neutrophil
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which leukocyte lacks specific granules, is up to three times the diameter of an erythrocyte, and has a large kidney-shaped or C-shaped nucleus?

    A)monocyte
    B)basophil
    C)lymphocyte
    D)neutrophil
    A)monocyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. An elevated count of neutrophils in the blood would most likely indicate

    A)a parasitic infection
    B)a chronic bacterial infection
    C)an acute viral infection
    D)an allergic reaction
    B)a chronic bacterial infection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which two types of cells release histamine (to dilate blood vessels) and heparin (to inhibit clotting)?

    A)monocytes and macrophages
    B)neutrophils and lymphocytes
    C)basophils and eosinophils
    D)mast cells and basophils
    D)mast cells and basophils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. During an attack of hay fever (or allergic rhinitis), a person could expect to have a higher than normal percentage of circulating

    A)eosinophils
    B)lymphocytes
    C)monocytes
    D)neutrophils
    A)eosinophils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The cells that produce the smallest formed elements of the blood are called

    A)myeloblasts
    B)megakaryocytes
    C)thrombocytes
    D)erythroblasts
    B)megakaryocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which sequence correctly lists formed elements in order of increasing abundance in typical blood?

    A)basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
    B)leukocytes, platelets, erythrocytes
    C)neutrophils, platelets, eosinophils
    D)platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes
    B)leukocytes, platelets, erythrocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Plasma cells (one type of specialized lymphocyte) and eosinophils work at opposite ends of specific immune responses involving proteins known as

    A)albumins
    B)regulatory proteins
    C)beta-globulins
    D)immunoglobulins
    D)immunoglobulins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Filled to capacity after a trip through the capillaries of the lungs, a normal erythrocyte would contain

    A)over a billion molecules of carbon dioxide
    B)four atoms of oxygen per hemoglobin molecule
    C)over a billion molecules of oxygen
    D)up to four molecules of oxygen
    C)over a billion molecules of oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. A general shortage of the only formed elements that retain all of their organelles is called
    A)leukopenia
    B)leukemia
    C)hemophilia
    D)anemia
    A)leukopenia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. When a leukocyte squeezes between endothelial cells in pursuit of pathogens, its ____________ has triggered its ____________.

    A)random movement; entrapment
    B)phagocytosis; autolysis
    C)hemolysis; differentiation
    D)chemotaxis; diapedesis
    D)chemotaxis; diapedesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. It would generally be a mistake for a physician to treat iron deficiency anemia simply by giving the patient iron supplements because

    A)all forms of anemia should be investigated as symptoms of precancerous conditions
    B)iron deficiency anemia transforms into pernicious anemia if not treated aggressively
    C)most iron deficiency anemias result from chronic blood loss, not dietary deficiency
    D)all of the above
    C)most iron deficiency anemias result from chronic blood loss, not dietary deficiency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Ironically, the oxygen deprivation of vital tissues (such as heart attacks or strokes) that can result from ____________ is caused by an excess of oxygen carriers in the blood.

    A)polycythemia
    B)hemorrhagic anemia
    C)sickle-cell disease
    D)aplastic anemia
    A)polycythemia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Persons with Rh ____________ blood never exhibit Rh ____________.

    A)negative; antibodies
    B)negative; incompatibility
    C)positive; antibodies
    D)positive; surface antigens
    C)positive; antibodies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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