Extras to study
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WhT is toll?
It is a gene that encodes a transmembrane receptor for the signaling molecule
What is dorsal?
- It belongs to a family similar to NF-kB gene regulatory proteins.
- In newly laid eggs, dorsal mRNA and the protein it encodes is relatively uniform. After migration of the nuclei to the periphery, the distribution changes.
Explain distribution of dorsal after migration of nuclei.
Dorsal can either remain in the cytoplasm or migrate into the nucleus. The determination of whether it does this or not depends on Toll
if toll is present, it phosphorylates dorsal, releasing cactus from it, and allowing it to enter into the nucleus, where it will activate twist, a protein responsible for the ventral features of the nfruit fly.
If toll is absent, cactus remains bound, inhibiting it's entry into the nucleus and thus being unable to repress express ion of dpp, a gene responsible for the dorsal features of the fruit fly
what are characteristics of plasmids?
- they have several promoters-T3 and T 7 are two known promoters.
- They need an origin of replication
- They have a multiple cloning site (short segment of DNA which contains many restriction sites. All cuts can be made only once and within mcs)
- ***these features can be modified in other plasmids
Why is it good to cut at the mcs?
Is is because of the ability to use lacz as a reporter gene since mcs is within the lacz gene
then, a test with beta galactosidase can be used to demonstrate that the plasmids are unaffected; the unaffected colony will be white
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