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2015-04-01 21:06:43

intro to health
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  1. Meninges
    protect brain and spinal chord
  2. Dura mater
    outer most layer
  3. Archnoid mater
    middle layer
  4. subarachnoid space contains
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  5. Pia mater
    inner most layer
  6. Separation of circulating blood and the brain ______ fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS)
  7. Borrelia
    causes lyme disease and treponema pallidum,
  8. treponema pallidum causes
    syphilis- bacterial spirochetes that can cross, burrow in blood barrier brain
  9. meningitis
    inflammation of meninges
  10. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  11. meningoencephalitis
    inflammation of brain and meninges
  12. Meningitis trasmitted
    droplet transmission
  13. Meningitis caused by
    several different bacteria
  14. Neisseria meningitides
    causes meningococcal meningitis
  15. streptococcus pneumoniae
    causes pneumococcal meningitis and pneumonia
  16. haemophilus influenzae type b
    causes haemophilus meningitis
  17. all 3 can cross blood-brain barrier, inflaming the meninges
    • Neisseria meningitides
    • streptococcus pneumoniae
    • haemophilus influenzae type b
  18. Bacterial Meningitis symptoms
    • fever, headache, stiff neck
    • nausea and vomiting
    • may progress to convulsions and coma
  19. Bacterial Meningitis diagnosed by
    gram strain and latex agglutination of CSF- spinal fluid
  20. Bacterial Meningitis treatment
    cephalosporins, vancomycin
  21. Listeriosis
    usually manifest itself as meningoencephalitis or septicemia
  22. listeriosis caused by
    listeria monocytogenes
  23. listeriosis transmitted by
    • food contaminated with feces
    • contaminated animal products like cold cuts and soft cheese
  24. Tetanus caused by
    Clostridium tetani
  25. Tetanus grows in
    deep wounds
  26. Released from dead cells that block relaxation pathways in muscles
    • tetanospasmin
    • everything tenses up
  27. tetanus prevention
    • by vaccination with tetanus toxoid (DTP) and booster (dT)
    • toxoid not life long immunity 
    • artificial passive immunity- giving you antitoxin (antibodies neutralize toxin)
  28. Botulism caused by
    Clostridium botulinum
  29. Botulism intoxication comes from
    ingesting botulinal toxin
  30. Botulinal toxins
    • block release of neurotransmitter, causing flaccid paralysis
    • survive in anaerobic environments 
    • found in can food
  31. Botulism prevents
    • proper canning
    • nitrites prevent endospores germination in sausages
  32. Botulism treatment
    supportive care and antitoxin
  33. Infant botulism
    result from C. botulinum growing in intestines
  34. Wound botulism
    result from growth of C. botulinum in wounds
  35. Leprosy also called
    Hansen's disease
  36. Leprosy caused by
    Mycobaterium leprae
  37. Leprosy
    acid fast rod that grows best at 30C
  38. Leprosy grows in
    peripheral nerves and skin cells
  39. Leprosy transmission
    requires prolonged contact with an infected person
  40. Tuberculoid (neural) form: leprosy
    loss of sensation in skin areas
  41. Lepromatous (progressive) form:
    • disfiguring nodules over body 
    • grows in peripheral, not in central
  42. Viral meningitis is _____ than bacterial meningitis
  43. Viral encephalitis consequences of
    primary or secondary infection
  44. Some form of encephalitis are due to
    herpes V virus
  45. Poliomyelitis (polio)
    • poliovirus
    • destruction of motor cells and paralysis occurs in < 1% of cases
  46. Polio transmitted by
  47. Polio symptoms
    sore throat and nausea
  48. Polio what may occur
    viremia may occur, if persistent virus can enter CNS
  49. Polio prevention
    • vaccination (enhanced inactivated polio vaccine) - US doesnt use 
    • oral live can be virulent again
  50. Polioviruses multiply in
    tonsils, lymph tissues, and the gastrointestinal tract
  51. Poliovirus can pass through sometimes
    • bloodstream
    • can result in paralysis in limbs and trunk
  52. Bulbar polio
    • viruses infect the medulla
    • affects nerves in neck, face, upper torso
  53. Rabies transmitted by
    animal bites
  54. Furious rabies
    animals are restless then highly excitable
  55. Paralytic rabies
    animals seem unaware of surrounding
  56. rabies
    highest mortality rate of any human disease
  57. Post exposure rabies
    immunization can be done immediately after exposure
  58. Rabies incubation period
    6 days to 1 year depending on where bitten, closer to brain, shorter incubation
  59. Arboviral encephalitis caused by
    Arthropod borne viruses that belong to several families
  60. Arboviral encephalitis patients suffer from
    • pain in head and neck
    • convulsions
    • coma
  61. Arboviral encephalitis patients who recover
    may have paralysis and mental disorder
  62. Prion are infected _____
  63. Transmissible spongiform ecephalopathies (TSEs) occur in
    humans and other animals
  64. Examples of transmissible spongiform ecephalopathies (TSEs)
    mad cow disease, sheep scrapie, creutzfeldt-jakob diisease, kuru
  65. Death from transmissible spongiform ecephalopathies (TSEs) occurs from
    nerve cell death leading to sponge like holes in brair tissue
  66. Symptoms of transmissible spongiform ecephalopathies (TSEs)
    • dementia
    • weakened muscles
    • loss of balance
  67. Naegleria fowleri
    brain eating brain cells , go up nose
  68. Naegleria fowleri primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
    rare disease
  69. Naegleria fowleri protozoa infects
    nasal mucosa
  70. Naegleria fowleri found in
    warm bodies of fresh water, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and hot springs
  71. Naegleria fowleri works by
    amoebae consumes the cells of the brain by means of a unique sucker apparatus extended from their cell surface
  72. primary of Naegleria fowleri
    headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck
  73. Secondary symptoms of Naegleria fowleri
    confusion, hallucination, lack of attention, ataxia, and seizures
  74. After start of symptoms for Naegleria fowleri disease progresses
    3 to 7 days
  75. death from Naegleria fowleri occurs
    7 to 14