Heart and Lung Worms in Dogs and Cats

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Anonymous
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299665
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Heart and Lung Worms in Dogs and Cats
Updated:
2015-04-01 07:56:45
Tags:
Heartworm Lungworm Dog Cat Parasitology
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Description:
Vet Med - Module 10
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  1. What is the name for heartworm?
    Dirofilaria immitis
  2. What is the main host for Dirofilaria immitis?
    Dogs
  3. What is the intermediate host for Dirofilaria immitis?
    Mosquito
  4. Where in the cardiovascular system are heartworms located?
    Right atrium, caudal vena cava, pulmonary artery
  5. Where geographically is Dirofilaria immitus located?
    USA, warm temperate zones in Europe, tropics
  6. Describe the life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis
    Adults are in the heart, males and females mate, females give birth to L1s --> L1 (microfilarae) released into blood --> mosquito ingests microfilarae --> develop L1-L3 in mosquito, 10-14 days under optimal conditions --> L3 transmitted by feeding mosquito --> L3-L4-adult in SC tissues and skin --> juvenile adults migrate to the heart
  7. What is the PPP for Dirofilaria immitis?
    6 months
  8. What does high numbers of adult Dirofilaria immitis cause?
    • Chronic congested right sided heart failure
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Vena cava syndrome
    • Endocarditis in valves, pulmonary endarteritis
    • Glomerulonerphritis
  9. List some of the clinical signs of heartworm
    • Cardiovascular dysfunction
    • Listless/gradual loss of condition
    • Exercise intolerance
    • Chronic soft cough
  10. How do we diagnose Dirofilaria immits?
    • Clinical signs and history
    • Detection of microfilarae in blood
    • Detection of circulating antigen
  11. Give a problem with the circulating antigen test for Dirofilaria immitis
    It only detects females not males
  12. Why is it best to use both detection of mf in blood and circulating antigen?
    As some dogs will have occult infections (adults but no mf in blood) and a small percentage of dogs have mf but no Ag
  13. How do we control Dirofilaria immitis?
    • Give macrolytic lactones monthly to kill the L3 and L4 or give DEC daily
    • Keep animals indoors at peak mosquito biting times (dusk)
    • Insecticide collars or spot on
    • Attempt to reduce mosquito population (but this is very difficult)
  14. True or false: prophylactic drugs kill adult Dirofilaria immitis worms?
    False
  15. Why should dogs ideally be microfilarae negative pre-control treatment?
    As if microfilarae positive dogs are treated it can induce anaphylactic shock, particularly if they have high mf counts
  16. How do we treat dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis?
    • Surgical removal of adult worms
    • Treatment with melarsomine
  17. Is Dirofilaria immitis more or less pathogenic in cats?
    More
  18. What causes the pathology of Dirofilaria immitis in cats?
    Inflammatory response to worms/worm death (not biomass like in dogs)
  19. Can we use melarsomine to treat Dirofilaria immitus in cats?
    No - it is very toxic to cats
  20. What is the name for lungworm of dogs?
    Angiostrongylus vasorum
  21. What is the intermediate host for Angiostrongylus vasorum?
    Molluscs
  22. Where in body is Angiostrongylus vasorum located?
    Right ventricle, pulmonary artery
  23. Describe the life cycle of Angiostrongylus vasorum
    Adults in heart --> female releases eggs --> eggs hatch in pulmonary capillaries --> L1 break into alveoli and migrate up lungs --> L1 in faeces --> L1-L3 in mollusc --> L3 released from IMH --> L4 - adult --> adult migrates to right side of heart
  24. What is the PPP of Angiostrongylus vasorum?
    ~7 weeks
  25. What pathology does Angiostrongylus vasorum cause?
    Chronic congestive heart failure, fibrosis in arteries, mottled lungs, bleeding
  26. List some of the clinical signs of Angiostrongylus vasorum
    • Early on - asymptomatic
    • Increased respiratory rate, cough on exercise
    • Fainting, SC haematoma
    • Can be associated with brain and spinal cord haemorrhage
  27. How do we diagnose Angiostrongylus vasorum?
    • Do a Baermann faecal sample. L1 in faeces have characteristic tail with small spine.
    • PCR
    • Ag test
  28. Geographically where is Angiostrongylus vasorum located?
    UK and Europe

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