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What is attitude?
- Favorable or unfavorable evaluative
- reaction toward something or someone
- It is rooted in belief and exhibited in
- feelings and inclinations to act
Three Components of Attitude:
What is moral hypocrisy?
Appearing moral while avoiding the costs of being so.
How moral hypocrisy is related to the fact that we fail to change people’s behavior by changing their attitude?
People know something is wrong, but that doesn't necessarily stop them from doing it. OR people know that they should do something, but that doesn't mean they will.
Examples include healthy eating and quitting smoking.
Situations where attitude can affect behavior
1. When social influences on what we say are minimal.
2. When other influences on behavior are minimal.
3. When attitudes specific to behavior are examined
4. When attitudes are potent
What is explicit and implicit attitude measure?
•Explicit (conscious): better choice for consumer or political attitude
•Implicit (unconscious): better choice for racial or gender attitude
How role playing will affect people’s attitude?
The role we take on will subtly morph into something that is more real- we become that role.
Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford’s prison study
Simulated prison where some students were assigned roles as guards; some were prisoners.
Everyone (including experimenters) got caught up in it.
"Guards" were degrading "prisoners"; prisoners rebelled.
When saying becomes believing
When there is no compelling external explanation for one’s words, saying becomes believing
What is foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Example: babysitting
What is low ball technique?
Tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante
We tend not only to hurt those we
dislike, but also...
...to dislike those we hurt
What is legislating morality?
Basically, legislation shapes people's attitudes. For example, many people's attitudes about race changed after desegregation.
What is certain social/political practice which can influence attitude change subsequently?
Social movements (heil Hitler, daily flag salutes)
What is self-presentation theory (impression management)?
Assumes that people, especially those who self-monitor their behavior hoping to create good impressions, will adapt their attitude reports to appear consistent with their actions
What is self-justification (cognitive dissonance)?
Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions/thoughts/behaviors
Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behavior when external justification is “insufficient”
What is deciding-becomes-believing effect?
After decision, we reduce dissonance by upgrading the chosen alternative and downgrading the unchosen option.
What is self-perception theory?
When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs