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What is a group?
Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us”
What is a function of group?
- •To affiliate (to belong to and
- connect with others)
•To gain a social identity
What is social facilitation?
Strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses whether correct or incorrect in the presence of others
How social facilitation can be applied to learning?
•Take less to learn a simple task
•Take more time to learn a complex one
What is crowding effect?
- •Being in a crowd intensifies positive or
- negative reactions
How effects of others’ presence will be related to their number?
Effect of others’ presence increases with their number: the arousal and self-conscious attention created by a large audience can interferes with performance (i.e., speaking, sports)
What are three explanations of social facilitation?
•Driven by distraction
What is social loafing?
Tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
Why social loafing is happening?
- No incentive to do work
- Group members think everyone else will do the work, so they don't have to
- Members aren't being evaluated individually; those not contributing aren't held accountable.
How social loafing would work differently depending on culture and gender?
- Women are less likely to take part in social loafing than men
- Collectivist cultures are less likely to socially loaf
How we can reduce social loafing in group works?
- Group evaluations
- Individual scores along with group scores
- Speak out against loafers to boss, professor, etc.
- Assign each group member a task
What is deindividuation?
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
How group size will be related to deindividuation?
larger group= more chance of individualization
How deindividuation would be incorporated with fundamental attribution error?
- Individuals aren't being personally held accountable; groups are
- More emphasis on situation, not actions
How physical anonymity will influence deindividuation?
Being anonymous makes one less self-conscious, more group-conscious, and more responsive to cues present in the situation, whether negative or positive
How arousing and distracting activity would influence deindividuation?
- Aggressive outbursts by groups are preceded by minor actions that arouse and divert people’s attention
- self-reinforcing pleasure in acting impulsively while watching others do same thing
- we are not thinking about our values; we are reacting to the immediate situation
What is the consequence of the decrease in self-awareness?
- less restrained, less self-regulated, more likely to act without thinking
- increase people’s responsiveness to the immediate situation
How to incorporate the concept of self-awareness into our society to decrease deindividuation?
- mirrors and cameras
- bright lights
- large name tags
- undistracted individual clothes, and houses