Philosophy Kantian Morality
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Why did Kant believe people were born with morality?
God put it there to show right from wrong
Name the 3 postulates that need to exist for morality to function
What is the summum bonum?
The state of being where our actions are entirely ethical and good and we are as happy as we can possibly be. This is happiness in proportion to virtue
Did Kant see reason as a way of showing God's existence?
no, God needed to be proven through practical necessity
what ethical view did Kant hold?
Is the summum bonum possible if God didnt exist? why?
no, because God has the power to give happiness from virtue
Why did Kant say moral behaviour is rational?
Moral reason is always the higher reason because they are categorical whereas practical reasons are hypothetical.
Why did Kant say that moral behaviour is only rational if justice will be done?
Morality needs to be rewarded otherwise a person may choose to do the wrong thing, because it benefits them the most. Justice prevents people from picking the wrong thing
Why did Kant say justice would only be done after death?
- Justice doesn't fully exist in this world and moral behaviour isn't always rewarded even though we have reason to do it.
- This must mean that there is an afterlife where we are rewarded for our moral actions, similar to the Christian idea of the afterlife where the good are praised and the bad are punished
Where did Freud say that moral actions come from?
Seeing behaviours in our societies or surroundings that are then picked up and passed on through the generations
What three parts are there in our brain, according to Freud?
- 1. the Id
- 2. the Ego
- 3. the Superego
according to freud, what is the Id?
the unconscious drive for survival, including sexual drive, holds suppressed memories
according to freud, what is the Ego?
The part that is formed by society and surroundings, controls and understands unacceptable behaviours. the personality
According to Freud, what is the Superego?
This is the unconscious mind which praises all good actions and the conscious mind which makes you feel guilty for bad actions.
Why does Freud say that moral awareness cannot come from God?
because then the commands would be absolute and we all would come to the same conclusion, when the reality is that we don't therefor God doesnt exist
Why does Freud say Kant's argument is invalid?
God would have made morality objective, but people have different views on what morality is, meaning there is no objective universal moral law, and therefore no God
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