Attitudes and their Tests

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Attitudes and their Tests
2015-04-02 09:52:11
Psychology Social Attitudes
Social Psychology,Attitudes
Show Answers:

  1. What is the difference between an attitude and a belief?
    Beliefs are pieces of information about something whereas an attitude is just an opinion
  2. What are beliefs based on?
    • Information gathering
    • This isn't always objective, people might be misled by others or misinterpret the information they take in
  3. What is a utilitarian belief function?
    • A belief that helps us to navigate the word and progress towards goals 
    • Usually useful information
  4. What is a existential belief function?
    • A belief that offers meaning and purpose 
    • Such as believing in an afterlife to get over a fear of death
  5. Who pioneered the Meaning Maintenance Model?
    Heine et al, 2006
  6. What are the rudiments of the meaning maintenance model?
    • 1: Meaning is what links people, places, objects, and ideas to one an- other in expected and predictable ways.
    • 2: People want to apply meaning to basic existential realms 
    • 3: Disruptions to meaning frameworks lead people to reaffirm alternative frameworks.
  7. What characteristics do people usually display after a meaning challenge?
    • Increased patriotism 
    • Defence of the status quo
    • Desire for more meaning in life
  8. What support exists for the MMM?
    • Challenges to self esteem:
    • Baumeister and Jones (1978):  P's received negative personality feedback in one domain,
    • they bolstered their self-assessments in unrelated domains.
    • Hogg and Sunderland (1991): Failure feedback in word association task = more in-group discrimination
  9. What is ABC?
    • The information on which attitudes are based 
    • A: Affective (how do I feel about it?)
    • B: Behavioural (how did I deal with this in the past?)
    • C: Cognitive (what do I know about this?)
  10. What are ambivalent attitudes?
    Attitudes that contain both positive and negative reactions to an object or situation
  11. What is a utilitarian attitude function?
    Attitudes serving to maximise reward and minimise harm
  12. What is a social identity (value expressive) function?
    Attitudes that serve to convey social or political beliefs
  13. Why is explicit attitude ambivalence rare?
    • Consistency facilitates attitude-behaviour
    • consistency

    • Information gathering is influenced by a
    • confirmation bias

    • Affective information about objects influences
    • subsequent interaction with the object
  14. What are implicit attitudes?
    • Non conscious and automatic evaluative responses to an object
    • Ambivalence is more common as people are unaware of these beliefs and whether they are contradictory
  15. What is the Implicit attitudes test?
    • Measures implicit attitudes 
    • Group words and images of attitude objects as either good or bad using computer keys 
    • Words and images presented with good and one demographic (e.g. picture of white person) on one side and vise versa 
    • Group words and images of faces using keys into the categories
  16. What are the critiques of the IAT?
    • Cognitive associations do not necessarily indicate beliefs 
    • Could be due to something like classical conditioning
  17. Give an alternate measure of implicit attitudes
    • Measure cortisol or blood pressure levels when viewing race related materials
    • Measure approach or avoidance to these topics