Attitudes and their Tests
Card Set Information
Attitudes and their Tests
Psychology Social Attitudes
What is the difference between an attitude and a belief?
Beliefs are pieces of information about something whereas an attitude is just an opinion
What are beliefs based on?
This isn't always objective, people might be misled by others or misinterpret the information they take in
What is a utilitarian belief function?
A belief that helps us to navigate the word and progress towards goals
Usually useful information
What is a existential belief function?
A belief that offers meaning and purpose
Such as believing in an afterlife to get over a fear of death
Who pioneered the Meaning Maintenance Model?
Heine et al, 2006
What are the rudiments of the meaning maintenance model?
1: Meaning is what links people, places, objects, and ideas to one an- other in expected and predictable ways.
2: People want to apply meaning to basic existential realms
3: Disruptions to meaning frameworks lead people to reaffirm alternative frameworks.
What characteristics do people usually display after a meaning challenge?
Defence of the status quo
Desire for more meaning in life
What support exists for the MMM?
Challenges to self esteem:
Baumeister and Jones (1978):
P's received negative personality feedback in one domain,
they bolstered their self-assessments in unrelated domains.
Hogg and Sunderland (1991):
Failure feedback in word association task = more in-group discrimination
What is ABC?
The information on which attitudes are based
: Affective (how do I feel about it?)
: Behavioural (how did I deal with this in the past?)
: Cognitive (what do I know about this?)
What are ambivalent attitudes?
Attitudes that contain both positive and negative reactions to an object or situation
What is a utilitarian attitude function?
Attitudes serving to maximise reward and minimise harm
What is a social identity (value expressive) function?
Attitudes that serve to convey social or political beliefs
Why is explicit attitude ambivalence rare?
Consistency facilitates attitude-behaviour
Information gathering is influenced by a
Affective information about objects influences
subsequent interaction with the object
What are implicit attitudes?
Non conscious and automatic evaluative responses to an object
Ambivalence is more common as people are unaware of these beliefs and whether they are contradictory
What is the Implicit attitudes test?
Measures implicit attitudes
Group words and images of attitude objects as either good or bad using computer keys
Words and images presented with good and one demographic (e.g. picture of white person) on one side and vise versa
Group words and images of faces using keys into the categories
What are the critiques of the IAT?
Cognitive associations do not necessarily indicate beliefs
Could be due to something like classical conditioning
Give an alternate measure of implicit attitudes
Measure cortisol or blood pressure levels when viewing race related materials
Measure approach or avoidance to these topics