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What is heuristic (peripheral/superficial) processing?
- Processing using only information that is salient to form attitudes
- Simple evaluative inferences are made
What is systematic (central) processing?
Processing involving the critical evaluation of the strength of arguments for and against the object to form attitudes
Who pioneered classical conditioning?
Who investigated attitude effects of classical conditioning?
- Staats & Staats (1958)
- Neutral nationality names such as Swedish or Dutch paired with either positive or negative words
- Negative attitudes were conditioned
Who coined the term, operant conditioning?
How might operant conditioning affect attitude formation?
Whether an action is rewarded or punished leads us to change our attitudes about it
What are heuristic cues?
- Social and observational learning
- Bandura (1977)
- Cues from models in people's lives such as warmth, praise
Who studied heuristic cues?
- Bandura (1961)
- Bobo doll experiment (models are violent or non violent)
What is the familiarity heuristic?
The phenomenon in which the familiar is preferred over the novel
Who provided support for the familiarity heuristic?
- Zajonc (1968)
- P's pronounced two nonsense words, one 10 times and one twice
- Then asked to rate how positive the words were
- The one repeated 10 times was rated as more positive
What is the facial feedback hypothesis? (heuristic cue)
- The hypothesis in which facial movement can influence opinion and emotional experience
- Influenced by Darwinian beliefs that physiological changes have an effect on emotion
Who provided support for the facial feedback hypothesis?
- Strack et al (1988)
- P's held pens in their mouth to simulate muscle contraction during smiling
- Watched cartoons
- Those with pens in their mouths found the cartoons funnier
What are the processes of systematic processing?
- Attending to the message
- Comprehending the message
- Elaboration (reacting either cognitive or affectively to the content)
Who pioneered systematic processing?
Petty & Cacciopo (1984)
What are the aspects of elaboration?
- More positive elaborations = higher likelihood of a positive attitude
- Strong attitudes elicit more positive elaborations than weak ones
- Systematic processing of weak arguments leads to more negative elaborations
Who pioneered the elaboration likelihood model?
Petty & Cacioppo (1984)
What motivational factors does the elaboration likelihood model depend on?
- Accuracy concerns and consequences of being wrong
- Social norms
- Self-relevence of the issue
- Need for cognition
What ability factors does the elaboration likelihood model depend on?
- Mental resources
- Processing constraints such as time
- Ability to concentrate