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In which situations might attitudes guide behaviour
- When the attitude is strong and accessible
- The behaviour is effortless
- There are no serious consequences of inaccuracy
In more complex circumstances, how might attitudes guide behaviour?
- When the attitude is linked to a specific behavioural intention (e.g. weight loss / desire to cut down on 30% of fat intake)
- This intention must also be linked to a simple, concrete plan of action
Who found that deliberate reminders increase accessibility attitude-behaviour consistency?
- Snyder & Swann (1976)
- Male p's made judgments about sexual discrimination in court
- Mainly made discriminatory ones about females
- Attitudes were made more positive when attitudes towards positive action were made more salient
Who found that self-awareness increases attitude accessibility?
- Diener & Wallbom (1976)
- Either put away or in front of a mirror and given the opportunity to cheat on an anagram test
- Significantly more people cheated when they didn't see themselves
How are the strengths and accessibility of attitudes increased?
- Through practice
- Attitudes must come into mind to affect behaviour
What is Cognitive Dissonance theory?
- Festinger (1957)
- The mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values
Which inconsistent behaviour does not produce dissonance?
- Inconsistent behaviour with non-core values
- Actions with low costs (sex discussion study, made to read out unpleasant words, the less unpleasant the initiation, the worse the ratings for the 'in group')- Aronson & Mills (1959)
- Actions that are coerced (forced decisions did not yield a change of beliefs, only reinforced old ones)- Linder, Cooper, & Jones (1967)
- Actions that are easily justified (payment)
When does dissonance not result in an attitude change?
- When dissonance can be attributed to something other than the action (Cooper et al ,1978)
- P's asked to write essays contrasting their beliefs
- Either given tranquiliser, amphetamine or placebo
- Drugs purported to make p's relaxed, tense or no effect
- The more relaxed (amphetamine) the more the attitude change
Who studied the reduction of dissonance via trivialising?
- Simon, Greenberg, & Brehm, 1995
- Participants will maintain beliefs if it is possible to trivialise the alternatives
Who studied the reduction of dissonance via inebriation?
- P's asked to rate brands of alcohol
- After rating (and drinking) they were asked to write counterattitudinal essays
- Dissonance was less evidence in conditions where participants had been drinking
Who studied the reduction of dissonance via self-affirmation?
- Steele, & Liu (1983)
- Self-affirmation; giving people the chance to reaffirm important values and behaviours
Who investigated facial cues and understanding?
- Neal and Chartrand (2011)
- We could see emotions of others by looking at facial expressions
- Facial expressions either impaired (botox) or improved via increasing the skin's resistance to muscle contraction (resistance gel)
- P's scored higher in tests of emotional perception when facial expression was better