Exploring Anthro 305 Second Half

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Exploring Anthro 305 Second Half
2015-05-20 01:36:11
second half

second half
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  1. Sampling
    • Quantitative issue involved
    • Selecting a representative part of a population you're interested in
    • do not confuse sampling with getting data
    • sampling is not involved with interviews, observations, surveys etc (these are strategies to getting data)
    • first, define population of concern
    • then, specify sampling method
  2. 2 overall types of sampling
    • Probability sampling
    • non-probability sampling
  3. Probability sampling
    • every person has equal chance to be chosen for study (depending on unit, household, class etc)
    • sampling frames - a list of units of analysis from which you take a sample (ex. Units - daughter in laws younger than 30)
    • should have a list of all qualifying people
  4. Probability Sampling Methods
    • simple random sampling
    • systematic random sampling
    • stratified random sampling
    • cluster sampling
  5. Simple random samping:
    • Use random number generator or table of random numbers.
    • Ex. To get a sample of 200 out of 640 people in a village
  6. Systematic random sampling
    • uses a random start and a sampling interval.
    • Ensures that every person has at least one chance of being chosen:
    • example: If 10,000 people are in the population and you are only sampling 400, then you pick up every 25th person
  7. Stratified random sampling
    Dividing a population into subpopulations, and taking a random sample from each subpopulation
  8. Cluster sampling
    • When there are no convenient lists or frames
    • A way to minimize travel time
    • Geographic areas, institutions
    • If you would like to interview individuals between 15 and 18 year old where would you  find them? At high school, mall etc.
  9. Non-probability sampling
    • labor intensive, in depth studies
    • choosing cases on purpose
    • sensitive topics, hard to find (ex. homeless people)
    • when we cannot get probability sampling we have to use non probability
    • expert informants
  10. Non probability sampling methods:
    • Quota
    • Purposive
    • Convenience
    • Chain
  11. Quota sampling
    • Subpopulation is divided based on your own interests and proportions (quota) of them
    • Example: if you live in a community of 400 and want to interview 80 people; interested
    • in gender and age difference based on occupational status: 400 - 80
    • Go out and fill the quotas
    • Problem with this sampling is that it may not be
    • representative of the actual population – it may be biased
    • Biased toward the people you can find easily
    • Advantage is getting data from knowledgeable
    • people and narratives
  12. Purposive sampling
    • You know exactly which you want to serve; the purpose you want informants to serve
    • No sampling design about how many people
    • you need; you just go with it because you know what you want and take what you can find
    • Usually used with pilot studies, special and hard to find populations
    • Key informants are used to help find other informants
  13. Convenience Sampling
    • Grab whoever will answer your questions
    • Ex. Emotions of women who have experienced female genital cutting (FGC) – eventually they have interviewed those who have and who have not gone through it
    • Not suitable to estimate a parameter or to study the entire community
  14. Chain Referral
    • Used for Hard to find or hard to study populations
    • Example: illegal activities or religious places
    • They maybe scattered, isolated, hiding, or members of an elite group over a large area

    • The snowball technique
    • Locating one person and asking that person where you could find others and so on
    • The problem is that they are not random because they are all interrelated and likely to be alike
    • In order to combat this there is respondent driven sampling

    • Respondent driven sampling
    • Type of snowball technique
    •  Lessens the ethical problem (they are willing to do it)
    • Less reluctant to be interviewed
    • Less biased than traditional snowball
    • Informal
    • Unstructered
    • Semistructured
    • Structured
  16. Informal Interviewing
    • You and the person do not know its an interview
    • A total lack of structure or control
    • Lack of field notes relies on having to remember the conversation
    • To build greater rapport and uncover new topics
  17. Unstructured interviewing
    • Sit down and hold and actual interview
    • Both parties know
    • A clear plan, but with minimum control over the responses
    • It is a way to get them to open up and express themselves in their own terms
    • A lot of ethnographic interviewing
  18. semistructured interviewing
    • Uses an interview guide
    • Has list of clear ordered questions and subjects in order to be asked
    • There is a possibility of answers being skewed, but you are still able to have them go back to the original question
    • You are in control, but free to follow new leads
    • Example: DOWRY – Do you think dowry is necessary? ‘Why’, ‘which case’….So when you got married did you bring/receive dowry?
  19. structured interviewing
    • Each exposed to the same stimuli or question
    • (lists of words, photos, clips of music or video etc.)
    • Controlling the input -->the output can be reliably compared
    • can use questionnaire interview, closed, or open questions
  20. How to make questions for semi structured interviews
    • the study question are major areas to know
    • Example: returned migrants and their adjustment
    • Where did they migrate from?
    • What are their family conditions?
    • What are their economic conditions?
    • Demographic information as to when, where,
    • how long, why, difficulties, etc.
    • How old are you? How many children do you have?

    • Developing questions in each area
    • Closed or open ended questions
    • Use of videos or cards etc
    • Contingency (asking questions related to each other:
    • Example: are you married --> yes, How old when you first met --> When --> Was she/he with you when? (And so on and so forth)

    • Language adjustment
    • Who are the respondents?
    • Develop probes
    • Begin with easy to answer questions
    • have a Logical flow
    • What should come first
    • start with questions in an area and then in a subarea
    • Potentially embarrassing questions at the end
    • Close the last question that will leave the interviewee feeling good or empowered
    • A person may refuse a follow up interview if they had a negative experience
  21. Exercise: semsistructured interview process
  22. Types of probing
    • silent
    • echo
    • uh huh
    • tell me more
    • long question
  23. silent probe
    • Most difficult technique
    • Silence is awkward and may make people feel uncomfortable
    • Done by remaining quiet and waiting for informant to continue
    • May be accompanied by a nod or “uh huh”
    • Inexperienced interviewers don’t really do this and just keep going
    • high risk technique
  24. echo probe
    • Repeating what the interviewee just said basically asking them to continue
    • Useful when informant is describing process or event
    • shows and encourages that the interviewer is understanding what they are saying
    • can be annoying if used too often
  25. uh huh probe
    • Making affirmative comments to encourage interviewee to speak more
    • Example: “uh huh”, “yes, I see” “you’re right”
    • Can be powerful
  26. long question probe
    • used to induce longer and more continuous responses from the interviewee
    • Example: How do you plant a home garden? --> what are all the things you have to do to actually get a home garden
  27. ethics of probing
    • Do not harm people who provided you with info in good faith
    • Do not give emotional burden
    • The more the person opens up the more responsibility you have
    • sometimes better to stop informant when they are providing unnecessary information
    • Example: talking about illegal issues – find some way to redirect it to protect yourself and the interviewee
    • Stop if you sense the informant is uncomfortable, you could either reassure or resume later
    • There are 2 types of extreme interviewees – the “IDK” or “talkative” types
  28. habitus
    • Based on self perception: one’s perception of the world and where one fits in
    • your habit about thinking about things
    • not fixed, but internalized
    • instinctive response of one’s potential
    • taught and learned at an early age and culturally reinforced
    • shapes and guides expectations and aspirations in assessing life chances
    • Example: How does habitus affect your choice of college education or career? What kind of Habitus may be influencing individuals; Habitus could be: family condition, economics, making money, being successful etc.
  29. Cultural domain analysis
    • How people think of lists of things that somehow go together
    • Can be physical and observable
    • Example: plants, symptoms of illness
    • Can be conceptual - Example: occupation, roles, emotions
    • Used to understand how people in different cultures or subcultures interpret the content of domains differently
  30. ways to do cultural domain analysis
    • free listing
    • 2 pair comparisons
  31. cultural domain analysis:

    free listing
    • Asks interviewee to list all the “X” they know about the topic
    • Very broad question so you need to probe
    • some people know more about the topic and can list more than those that cant
    • You need to probe:
    • Redundant questioning: in different words and a few cues
    • Non specific prompting: “what other kinds of “X’s” are there?
    • Prompting with alphabetic cues: “what kinds of “X’s” are there beginning with letter A
    • Prompting with semantic cues: think of all kinds of X’s that are like Y
  32. cultural domain analysis:

    2 pair comparisons
    • Done with a small amount of items
    • Used to get rank ordering of a list of items in
    • a domain
    • Be sure to scramble the order of pairs to ensure against order effects
    • Count up how many times each item is a list “wins”
    • This finds which is more popular
    • Example: Here are 2 food items which do you prefer?
    • 1)  Protein sources: beef, chicken, garbanzo beans, salmon, Tofu
    • 2)  You want to make 10 pairs of the following list items
    • 3)  N (n-1)/2 pairs  --> 6 (6-1) /2
    • 4)  Beef – Chicken
    • Beef - Garbanzo beans
    • Beef – Salmon
    • Beef – Tofu
    • Chicken – garbanzo
    • Chicken – Salmon
    • Chicken – Tofu
    • Garbanzo – Salmon
    • Garbanzo – Tofu
    • Salmon – Tof

    Use with a relatively short list of items in a domain

    o   Example: 20 items -- >20 (20-1)/2 = 190……..informants have to make 190 judgements

    o   This is why its important to use a relatively small list
  33. Observation types:
    • direct observation
    • continuous observation
    • spot sampling
    • unobtrusive
    • participant observation
  34. Continuous monitoring
    • Watching a person or groups of people for an extended amount of time
    • gets Rich information
    • Time consuming
    • Limited observation time
    • Intrusive effects (the people being studied may in turn watch you)
  35. Spot sampling
    • you get a snapshot of the ongoingactivity
    • Questions to consider to conduct a snapshot:   Who, what do I watch, Where do I go to watch, Whendo I go, How often, How long
    • often a rapid process so that you can get to many other occasions
    • may lack variety
    • Difficult to provide information, processes, or reasons
    • A brief question may be asked
    • You can combine spot sampling and continuous monitoring
    • Example:Mayan craft women in Mexico
    • SS several times a week at different times at a local super market and CM done for 3 hours of 15 women: 82% of time is just waiting on customers: 36% of time interrupted by children, this shows the combination of childcare and economics
  36. reactivity issues with CM and SS
    people can get tired of you
  37. unobtrusive observation
    • Secret research
    • The ultimate in participant observation
    • Raises ethical concern though
    • Risks are your own and no one else’s
    • You may not foresee the potential harm
  38. Participant observation
    • Not all fieldwork is participant observation
    • You are experiencing the lives of people that you study
    • Establish rapport and learn to act like the natives
    • Learning is from emic perspective
    • Goal is to learn how people go about their business as usual
    • Cultural anthropologists prefer to use PO to get their data
    • Possible to collect all kinds of data that strangers cannot
    • Reduces the problem of reactivity issues
    • Helps you make sensible questions
    • Get an Intuitive understanding of what is going
    • on in the culture
    • Able to speak with confidence about the meaning of data and the validity
    • General understanding of how social institution or organization works
    • PO is not easy - you must get accepted into their society
  39. Skills for successful PO
    • Learn the language
    • Build explicit awareness of the little details
    • Build memory needed
    • Be a learner of the cultural attitude
    • Build writing skills
    • Hangout and gain rapport
    • Be objective – don’t get distorted by emotion or personal bias
    • Give accurate detailed descriptions
    • Discuss theoretical, methodological, and emotional issues
    • Objectivity does not mean value neutrality
    • You don’t have to accept there traditions
  40. 7 basic areas of ethnography of SPEAKING
    • setting/situation
    • participants
    • ends
    • act sequence
    • keys
    • instrumentalities
    • norms
    • genres
  41. setting/situation
    • Place – where the conversation takes place (church, funeral, wedding)
    • Specific and unwritten ideas – what is the “normal” conversation for these places
    • Example: church: religious jargon, bar: cussing
    • Specific kinds of responses
    • Expectations may not be obvious
  42. participants
    • Who can or should be involved
    • Influence of expectations
    • Example: gender difference of speech between male and females
  43. Ends
    • What kind of reasons or goals are used with speech
    • Example: beginning a conversation or apologizing or asking directions in new york
  44. act sequence
    • What are the words used? By Whom? Who Begins? Who continues? Etc
    • Speech acts – specific utterances and intentions of the speaker
    • Speech event – greetings, making apologies, telling jokes, etc
    • How silence is used – how much silence is awkward
  45. Key
    • Mood or spirit in which communication takes place
    • Example: a funeral or party----is teasing appropriate
  46. instrumentalities
    • Varieties of language that the speaker used
    • What kind of language, accent, or jargon words
    • were used
    • Pronunciation, word choice, or grammer
    • Example: Fourth floor in California, Fawth Flaw
    • in NY, Yawd in Boston
    • Identity status is shown with jargon or pronunciation
  47. norms
    • Appropriateness of speech used
    • Overlaps with who should speak - How loud? Is it ok to use specific words?
    • To be polite: even though its not good you respond with something such as “it’s
    • good corn pudding”
    • Taboos and Avoidance
  48. genres
    • Overlapping setting
    • Lectures
    • Conversations
    • Gossip
    • Jokes
  49. 2 types of analysis
    • quantitative
    • qualitative
  50. quantitative analysis
    a way of measuring things in numbers
  51. qualitative analysis
    Examination of non-measurable data such as a reputation, brand image, or peoples feelings about a topic.
  52. quantitative analysis of qualitative data
    • Interpretive studies of text and narratives
    • Themes – How themes are related
    • Deeper or multiple meanings (etic perspective) Example: archaic art
  53. quantitative analysis of quantitative data
    • Numerical analysis of numerical data
    • Direct observation; census; closed ended questions
  54. qualitative analysis of quantitative data
    • Visualization methods
    • Example: Y-chromosome data from European nations
    • Meaning in the results from quantitative data
  55. quantitative analysis of qualitative data
    • Words or images transferred into numbers then analyzed quantitatively
    • Example: “tag””code” = frequencies
    • Example: differences between how mothers and fathers describe their children: Does he or she have any special qualities or abilities?
  56. data matrix - 2 types
    • used for both quantitative and qualitative data
    • proximity
    • profile
  57. profile matrix
    • finds how things are related to each other
    • Example: is the ability to hunt related to the
    • number of wives a man has?

  58. proximity matrix
    • Measurement of relations or proximities between items
    • Correlation matrix
    • Example: distance table Useful
    • for quantitative analysis of qualitative data
    • Dichotomized either 0 or 1
  59. Qualitative data Analysis:

    Text Analysis
    • interpretive
    • narrative
    • schema
    • discourse
    • grounded theory
    • content
  60. interpretive analysis
    • How people interpret and reinterpret things
    • Example: old and new testament: continual interpretation and reinterpretation
    • Tries to find original meaning and directives for living in the present
  61. narrative analysis
    • part of discourse
    • Under the don’t interrupt this turn rule (wait until person stops talking)
    • Regularities in how people tell stories or give speeches
    • What are put on, in what order, and what are held back
    • Example: can you tell me the story of your
    • mothers death? What happened? How did she die? (determined based on length)
    • Example: structural regularities: medical
    • preamble --> decline
    • Details, personality traits
    • Emphasis on the direct experience
  62. schema analysis
    • Premise about people trying to understand the world in a simple way
    • People use cognitive simplifications to help make sense of the complex information
    • Schema – underlying simplification
    • How things “simplified” are linked together
    • “what goes with what? Example food association how things work? Folk theory – how people get diabetes in mexico and Haiti
  63. discourse analysis
    • How the contruction and flow of naturally occurring speech are regulated (has rules)
    • Example: who talks first (and next) who interrupts, who waits for a turn
    • Example: how jurors for a criminal trial managed turn taking How power differences are perpetual, reinforced, and resisted
    • Example: The paretns telling the doctor that their son doesn’t seem to be progressing normally in speaking
  64. grounded theory
    • A type of narrative analysis
    • Inductive not deductive
    • Inductive: look at specific things and then make a generalization
    • Deductive: is general to specific
    • It is not theory first, but eventually makes a generalization
    • Data gathered from in depth interviews
    • Step 1:  coding and theorizing as you go Line by line identifying potentially useful
    • concepts (called open coding)
    • Step 2: memorizing and theorizing (often with step 1)  a.    Each moment try to come up with theory even if incomplete b.    Keep running notes about each of the concepts and how they may be related –Ideas.
    • Step 3: building and refining theories Example: handouts
  65. content analysis
    • Systematic coding and analyzing
    • Usually quantitative analysis
    • Deductive steps
    • Step 1: study question or hypothesis based on
    • existing theory or prior research
    • Step 2: select a set of texts to test
    • Step 3: create a set of codes (themes)
    • Step 4: pretest and fix any problems
    • Step 5:apply the codes
    • Step 6: create a matrix
    • Step 7: analyze
  66. Theme? Where does it come from?
    • underlying dimension of meaning cutting across a variety of expression, which control behavior or stimulate activity
    • Identified as other different terms as well such as categories, labels, etc
    • comes from Prior theoretical understanding (deductive way)
    • Already agreed on professional definitions: local common sense
    • Researchers values and theoretical orientations
    • Previous studies
    • Example: collectivistic vs. individualistic
    • Example: physical appearance vs. economic status (In personal ads)
    • Induced from data (inductive way)
    • As you go underline or highlight things that you
    • think might be important
  67. How to find themes?
    Repetition of words: Example: retired blue collar worker interviewed: “greed”, “money”, “being different” words expressed

    • Indigenous typologies or categories: Unfamiliar, local words or familiar words that are used in unfamiliar ways. Example: “making a flop” – homeless description for preparing sleep
    • Metaphors and analogies: Example: American marriage described as: “the rock of gibralter” “nailed in cement”
    • Transition: New paragraphs; pauses or changes in tone of voice; particular phrases
    • Similarities and differences: Look line by line How is it different or similar from preceding or following statements
    • Comparing responses: Compare different individuals. Look for common themes
    • Comparing whole text: How is this different form the last; What kind of things are mentioned in both
    • Linguistic connections:Causal relations: “because”, “since”. Need to have very strong skills in the language required. Example: since he got married its like he forgot his friends – is it causal relation or just time Conditional: if, rather, then, instead of
    • Taxonomic: “is a” -  how its categorized
    • Time oriented: before, after, when
    • X is Y relation: rock is hard, lemon is sour
    • Contingent relations: if x, then y
    • Missing data: What is missing, not mentioned. Not mentioning is use of silence
    • Theory related material: Deductive way: Theoretical importance: example: Malinowski – functionalist – religion is to bring comfort under stress. Trade off fresh ideas and surprising connections
  68. codebook
    • an organized lists and definitions of themes
  69. measures of central tendency
    • mode - how many times a variable occurs in a sequence
    • median - the midpoint in a distribution (n/2+1 = middle number)
    • mean - average
  70. measures of dispersion
    • shows how data is dispersed
    • standard deviaton
    • 3 sigma rule