Human Anatomy Chapter 22 Heart

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dahotstuff30
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299779
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Human Anatomy Chapter 22 Heart
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2015-04-02 17:19:33
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ventricle blood aorta
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Human Anatomy
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Human Anatomy Chapter 22 Heart
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  1. What ensures the unidirectional flow of blood through both the heart and the blood vessels?

    A)constant pressure generated by the heart contractions
    B)squeezing action of smooth muscle tissue in arterial walls
    C)continuous osmotic outflow of plasma from capillaries
    D)valves within the heart that prevent backflow of blood
    D)valves within the heart that prevent backflow of blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The ____________ carries blood throughout the body; the ____________ carries blood only to and from the lungs.

    A)systemic circuit; pulmonary circuit
    B)pulmonary circuit; systemic circuit
    C)venous circulation; arterial circulation
    D)arterial circulation; venous circulation
    A)systemic circuit; pulmonary circuit
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What are the three layers of the heart wall, in order from external to internal?

    A)epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
    B)myocardium, endocardium, epicardium
    C)pericardium, myocardium, epicardium
    D)endocardium, myocardium, pericardium
    A)epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The epicardium is also called the

    A)fibrous pericardium
    B)serous pericardium
    C)visceral layer of the serous pericardium
    D)parietal layer of the serous pericardium
    C)visceral layer of the serous pericardium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The myocardium is composed of

    A)a simple squamous epithelium and a layer of areolar connective tissue
    B)an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer
    C)cardiac muscle tissue
    D)both b and c
    C)cardiac muscle tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. In which of the following ways does cardiac muscle tissue differ from skeletal muscle tissue?

    A)cardiac muscle fibers are relatively short and branched or bifurcated
    B)neighboring cardiac muscle fibers are connected by intercalated discs
    C)each cardiac muscle cell has only one or two centrally located nuclei
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  7. The fibrous skeleton of the heart does not

    A)promote random impulse conduction throughout the heart wall
    B)provide a rigid framework for the attachment of cardiac muscle tissue
    C)anchor and stabilize the heart valves
    D)separate the atria and ventricles
    A)promote random impulse conduction throughout the heart wall
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The heart is rotated such that the ____________ are located more anteriorly, while the other chambers are located more posteriorly.

    A)right atrium and ventricle
    B)left atrium and ventricle
    C)right and left atria
    D)right and left ventricles
    A)right atrium and ventricle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Externally, the atria and ventricles are separated by a relatively deep groove called the

    A)interventricular sulcus
    B)coronary sulcus
    C)atrioventricular septum
    D)interatrial sulcus
    B)coronary sulcus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The inferior, conical end of the heart is called the
    A)apex
    B)base
    C)inferior angle
    D)right ventricle
    A)apex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What are the prominent ridges on the internal surfaces of the auricles and the anterior atrial walls?

    A)pectinate muscles
    B)papillary muscles
    C)chordae tendineae
    D)trabeculae carneae
    A)pectinate muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. As their name implies, the heart chambers that receive blood returning through both circulatory circuits are called

    A)sinuses
    B)ventricles
    C)auricles
    D)atria
    D)atria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. All of the following are true of the left ventricle except

    A)receives deoxygenated venous blood from the left atrium
    B)aortic semilunar valve at superior end separates it from the aorta
    C)inner wall contains prominent trabeculae carneae and papillary muscles
    D)wall is typically 3 times thicker than that of right ventricle
    A)receives deoxygenated venous blood from the left atrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Blood from the systemic circuit returns directly into which heart chamber?

    A)right atrium
    B)right auricle
    C)left auricle
    D)left atrium
    A)right atrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The pulmonary trunk carries blood from which heart chamber into the pulmonary circuit?

    A)left ventricle
    B)right atrium
    C)left atrium
    D)right ventricle
    D)right ventricle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Oxygenated blood returning from the lungs enters the left atrium through

    A)the coronary sinus
    B)the pulmonary arteries
    C)the pulmonary veins
    D)all of the above
    C)the pulmonary veins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. From the right atrium, blood passes through the right AV (tricuspid) valve into the

    A)left atrium
    B)pulmonary trunk
    C)right ventricle
    D)left ventricle
    C)right ventricle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. When closed, the left atrioventricular valve prevents backflow of blood into the

    A)left atrium
    B)left ventricle
    C)right ventricle
    D)right atrium
    A)left atrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which structures prevent the AV valves from everting and flipping into the atria when the ventricles contract?

    A)chordae tendineae and pectinate muscles
    B)chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
    C)conus arteriosus and interventricular septum
    D)foramen ovale and fossa ovalis
    B)chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
  20. As the ventricles start to contract, the first heart sound ("lubb") signifies the

    A)opening of all four heart valves
    B)closing of all four heart valves
    C)closing of the AV valves
    D)closing of the semilunar valves
    C)closing of the AV valves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Specialized cardiac muscle fibers that transmit muscle impulses to the contractile muscle cells of the myocardium are an important part of the heart’s
    A)conduction system
    B)fibrous skeleton
    C)valvular apparatus
    D)all of the above
    A)conduction system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The cardiac muscle fibers of the ____________ act as the pacemaker, the rhythmic center that initiates the heartbeat.

    A)atrioventricular bundle
    B)sinoatrial node
    C)ventricular myocardium
    D)AV node
    B)sinoatrial node
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The inclusive period of time from the beginning of one heartbeat to the next is called

    A)systole
    B)a cardiac cycle
    C)a conduction pattern
    D)diastole
    B)a cardiac cycle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Regardless of the heart chamber, contraction is called ____________ and relaxation, ____________.

    A)defibrillation, fibrillation
    B)fibrillation, defibrillation
    C)diastole, systole
    D)systole, diastole
    D)systole, diastole
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The QRS complex of a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing denotes the beginning of

    A)depolarization of the ventricles
    B)repolarization of the atria
    C)depolarization of the atria
    D)repolarization of the ventricles
    A)depolarization of the ventricles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. An ECG produces a composite tracing of all ____________ generated by myocardial cells.

    A)nerve impulses
    B)metabolic activity
    C)muscle impulses
    D)muscle contractions
    C)muscle impulses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The right coronary artery typically branches into which two vessels?

    A)circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery
    B)right marginal artery and anterior interventricular artery
    C)circumflex artery and posterior interventricular artery
    D)right marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery
    D)right marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system that innervate the heart are collectively called the

    A)bundle of His
    B)cardiac nerves
    C)coronary plexus
    D)Purkinje fibers
    C)coronary plexus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Autonomic innervation of the heart does which of the following?
    A)increases heart rate and force of contractions
    B)both b and c
    C)initiates heartbeat at beginning of each cardiac cycle
    D)decreases heart rate without changing force of contractions
    B)both b and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. After birth, the foramen ovale of the fetal heart is replaced by a small depression in the interatrial septum called the

    A)fossa ovalis
    B)conus cordis
    C)ligamentum arteriosum
    D)truncus arteriosus
    A)fossa ovalis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following is not true of a normal adult heart?

    A)both atria receive only venous blood
    B)both ventricles discharge blood only into arteries
    C)the two left chambers conduct only oxygenated blood
    D)the left ventricle pumps at a faster rate than the right
    D)the left ventricle pumps at a faster rate than the right
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The serous pericardium does not

    A)form a mucous membrane lining the pericardial cavity
    B)consist of an outer parietal layer and an inner visceral layer
    C)secrete a lubricating fluid into the pericardial cavity
    D)facilitate almost frictionless movement as the heart beats
    A)form a mucous membrane lining the pericardial cavity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Oxygenated blood flows through ____________ in the systemic circuit but through ____________ and the opposite heart chambers in the pulmonary circuit.

    A)veins and the left atrium and ventricle; arteries
    B)veins and the right atrium and ventricle; arteries
    C)arteries and the right atrium and ventricle; veins
    D)arteries and the left atrium and ventricle; veins
    D)arteries and the left atrium and ventricle; veins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Blood from the systemic circuit returns to the right atrium through

    A)the superior vena cava
    B)the inferior vena cava
    C)the coronary sinus
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  35. In terms of oxygen content of the blood they transmit, left atrioventricular is to aortic semilunar as ____________ is to pulmonary semilunar.

    A)bicuspid
    B)mitral
    C)tricuspid
    D)none of the above
    C)tricuspid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. A type of heart murmur called mitral valve prolapse would most likely involve a defect in

    A)the size or shape of the right atrioventricular opening
    B)the structure of either semilunar valve
    C)the left chordae tendineae or papillary muscles
    D)one of the three cusps of the tricuspid valve
    C)the left chordae tendineae or papillary muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The left and right coronary arteries

    A)are functional end arteries despite sharing tiny anastomoses
    B)are the only branches from the ascending aorta
    C)have highly variable distribution in the posterior ventricular walls
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  38. In the coronary circulation, all venous blood returns to the heart through the

    A)great cardiac vein
    B)middle cardiac vein
    C)coronary sinus
    D)all of the above
    C)coronary sinus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Although the valve itself is located elsewhere, the best auscultation site for the left AV valve is

    A)in the second intercostal space to the left of the sternum
    B)by the right side of the inferior end of the sternum
    C)near the apex of the heart in the fifth intercostal space
    D)in the second intercostal space to the right of the sternum
    C)near the apex of the heart in the fifth intercostal space
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Just before leaving the heart to go to the lungs, blood must pass through a smooth-walled region called the

    A)pulmonary trunk
    B)bulbus cordis
    C)conus arteriosus
    D)sinus venosus
    C)conus arteriosus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. What would happen if the papillary muscles could not contract?

    A)the semilunar valves would stay open throughout the cardiac cycle
    B)the ventricular myocardium would also fail to contract
    C)blood would not enter the ventricles during diastole
    D)the atrioventricular valves would not seal tightly
    D)the atrioventricular valves would not seal tightly
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which set correctly lists the sequence in which events in the cardiac cycle begin?

    A)ventricular systole, ventricular diastole, atrial diastole, atrial systole
    B)atrial systole, ventricular systole, atrial diastole, ventricular diastole
    C)ventricular systole, atrial systole, ventricular diastole, atrial diastole
    D)atrial systole, atrial diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular diastole
    D)atrial systole, atrial diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular diastole
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Rank the following in order from the longest lasting to the shortest-lived condition in a normal cardiac cycle: (1) atria relaxed (2) ventricles contracting (3) AV valves open (4) semilunar valves closed

    A)3, 2, 4, 1
    B)1, 4, 3, 2
    C)4, 1, 2, 3
    D)2, 4, 1, 3
    B)1, 4, 3, 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. What happens during ventricular diastole?

    A)both ventricles fill with blood
    B)both AV valves remain closed
    C)both ventricles contract
    D)both semilunar valves remain open
    A)both ventricles fill with blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Under normal conditions, only two heart chambers are ever concurrently in ____________, but all four are ____________ together for the last half of the cardiac cycle.

    A)systole; relaxing
    B)systole; contracting
    C)diastole; relaxing
    D)diastole; contracting
    A)systole; relaxing
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. In which of the following pairs do the events start almost simultaneously?

    A)ventricular systole, first heart sound ("lubb")
    B)atrial diastole, ventricular systole
    C)ventricular diastole, closing of semilunar valves
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  47. Tachycardia predisposes a person to inadequate coronary blood flow because

    A)it lowers blood pressure, reducing the "push" of blood through the myocardium
    B)it raises blood pressure, forcing blood too quickly past the coronary arteries
    C)it shortens systole, when blood would normally be squeezed through the myocardium
    D)it reduces the time that the myocardium is relaxed enough to permit blood flow
    D)it reduces the time that the myocardium is relaxed enough to permit blood flow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Arrange these components of the heart's conduction system in their sequence of activity, beginning with the pacemaker: (1) Purkinje fibers (2) AV node (3) SA node (4) AV bundle

    A)4, 2, 1, 3
    B)1, 3, 2, 4
    C)3, 2, 4, 1
    D)2, 3, 1, 4
    C)3, 2, 4, 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. In an ECG tracing, what might an unusually strong QRS complex indicate?

    A)acute coronary ischemia
    B)damage to the sinoatrial node
    C)hypertrophy of the ventricular myocardium
    D)damage to the AV bundle or Purkinje fibers
    C)hypertrophy of the ventricular myocardium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. When a person's heart "skips a beat," what has most likely occurred?

    A)atrial flutter or fibrillation
    B)ventricular fibrillation
    C)premature ventricular contraction
    D)angina pectoris
    C)premature ventricular contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. All of the following accurately characterize heart development except

    A)four expansions that give rise to postnatal heart structures develop by day 22
    B)two heart tubes fuse to form a single primitive heart tube by day 21
    C)the heart tube becomes partitioned into four chambers during weeks 5-8
    D)the heart starts beating as soon as development is complete, by week 8
    D)the heart starts beating as soon as development is complete, by week 8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. If the fetal septum primum and septum secundum fail to fuse properly at birth, the newborn has a congenital heart malformation called

    A)an atrial septal defect
    B)tetralogy of Fallot
    C)a ventricular septal defect
    D)pulmonary stenosis
    A)an atrial septal defect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which potentially fatal heart problem is most like a stroke, or cerebrovascular accident?

    A)ventricular fibrillation
    B)cardiac tamponade
    C)cardiac arrest
    D)myocardial infarction
    D)myocardial infarction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. What heart problem may be caused, ironically, by the body's attempt to protect itself from a streptococcal throat infection?

    A)coronary atherosclerosis
    B)rheumatic heart disease
    C)cardiomyopathy
    D)infectious endocarditis
    B)rheumatic heart disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What causes a heart murmur?

    A)valvular leakage
    B)decreased valve flexibility
    C)a misshapen valve
    D)any of the above
    D)any of the above

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