ChapterTwelve Reproductive System and Obstetrics (terms)

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ChapterTwelve Reproductive System and Obstetrics (terms)
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ChapterTwelve Reproductive System and Obstetrics (terms)
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  1. aspermia
    inability to produce or ejaculate sperm
  2. azoospermia
    the absence of living sperm in semen
  3. balanorrhea
    abnormal condition of discharge from the glans (distal end of the penis)
  4. chancres
    small ulcers on the skin of the penis, a symptom of syphilis
  5. oligospermia
    an abnormally low sperm count, a sign of male infertility
  6. papilloma
    are wartlike lesions on the skin and mucous membranes. Commonly called genital warts
  7. prostatitis
    inflammation of the prostate gland
  8. prostatorrhea
    abnormal discharge from the prostate gland
  9. testalgia
    the condition of testicular pain
  10. urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra
  11. andropathy
    a general term for a disease afflicting only males
  12. anorchism
    absence of one or both testes
  13. balantitis
    inflammation of the glans penis
  14. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    a condition of enlarged prostate gland in males older than 50 years; it is also called benign prostatic hypertrophy
  15. cryptorchidism
    condition of an undescended testis, also called cryptorchism
  16. epididymitis
    inflammation of the epididymis
  17. orchiepididymitis
    when the epididymis and one or more testis are inflamed
  18. orchitis
    inflammation of one or more testes
  19. erectile dysfunction (ED)
    the inability to achieve an erection sufficient to perform sexual intercourse, also known as impotence
  20. hydrocele
    a swelling of the scrotum caused by fluid accumulation, usually due to injury
  21. Peyronie disease
    a hardness, or induration, of the erectile tissue within the penis
  22. phimosis
    a congenital narrowing of the prepuce opening
  23. priapism
    an abnormally persistent erection of the penis, often accompanied by pain and tenderness
  24. prostate cancer
    an aggressive form of cancer of the prostate gland; also called prostatic carcinoma
  25. testicular carcinoma
    a cancer originating from the testis, the most common form is called seminoma
  26. testicular torsion
    a condition in which the spermatic cord becomes twisted, causing a reduced blood flow to the testis
  27. varicocele
    herniation of the veins within the spermatic cord caused by failure of the valves within the veins
  28. anti-impotence therapy
    a collection of therapies that address erectile dysfunction, or ED
  29. balanoplasty
    surgical repair of the glans penis
  30. circumcision
    removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, of the penis
  31. digital rectal examination (DRE)
    a physical exam that involves the insertion of a finger into the rectum to feel the size and shape of the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum
  32. hydrocelectomy
    the surgical removal of a hydrocele
  33. orchidectomy
    the surgical removal of a testis, also called orchiectomy; removal of both testes is commonly called castration
  34. orchidopexy
    surgical fixation of the testis, which is sometimes required to draw an undescended testis into the scrotum; also called orchiopexy 
  35. orchidoplasty
    surgical repair of a testis; also called orchioplasty
  36. orchidotomy
    an incision into the testis
  37. penile implants
    surgical insertion of prosthesis, or artificial device, to correct for erectile dysfunction
  38. prostatectomy
    the surgical removal of the prostate gland
  39. prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
    a clinical test that measures levels of the protein, prostate-specific antigen, in the blood
  40. transuretheral resection of the prostate gland (TURP)
    a procedure involving removal of prostate tissue BPH
  41. urology
    the medical discipline specializing in the clinical treatment of urinary disease
  42. urologist
    physician who treats disorders of the urinary system
  43. vasectomy
    an elective sterilization procedure in which the vas deferens is severed to block the flow of sperm during ejaculation
  44. vasovasostomy
    a surgical procedure to reverse a vasectomy
  45. vesiculectomy
    a procedure to remove the seminal vesicles
  46. amenorrhea
    absence of a menstrual discharge of a woman of child-bearing age
  47. menorrhea
    normal menstrual discharge
  48. colpodynia
    a symptom of vaginal pain
  49. colporrhagia
    the symptom of excessive vaginal bleeding
  50. dysmenorrhea
    abnormal pain during menstruation
  51. hematosalpinx
    a condition of retained menstrual blood-related disease
  52. leukorrhea
    a white or yellow discharge from the vagina, literally "white discharge"
  53. mastalgia
    condition of breast pain
  54. menorrhagia
    abnormal discharge (excessive bleeding) during menstruation
  55. menometrorrhagia
    abnormal discharge from the uterus during and between menstrual periods
  56. mittelschmerz
    a symptom of abdominal pain occurring during ovulation
  57. oligomenorrhea
    an abnormally reduced discharged during menstruation
  58. pyosalpinx
    a discharge of pus from the fallopian tube that is a sign of infection
  59. amastia
    lack of breast tissue, although areola and nipple are present
  60. polymastia
    the presence of more than two breasts
  61. breast cancer
    a malignant tumor arising from breast tissue. The most common form is called infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC)
  62. carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix
    literally "cancer in site," referring to the presence of cancer in an organ before it spreads through metastasis. When occurring in the cervix, it arises from cells of the cervix.
  63. dysplasia
    the process of the change in cells
  64. cervical cancer
    a malignant tumor of the cervix
  65. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
    the abnormal development of cells within the cervix resulting in tumor formation, which has the potential of becoming cancerous
  66. cervicitis
    inflammation of the cervix
  67. endocervicitis
    inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix
  68. cystocele
    a protrusion of the urinary bladder against the wall of the vagina
  69. endometrial cancer
    a malignant tumor arising from the endometrial tissue lining the uterus
  70. endometriosis
    a condition in which abnormal growth of endometrial tissue throughout areas of the pelvic cavity, including the external walls of the uterus, fallopian tubes, urinary bladder, and even on the peritoneum
  71. endometritis
    inflammation of the endometrium usually caused by bacterial infection
  72. fibrocystic breast disease
    inherited condition of one or more benign, fibrous cysts that develop within the breast
  73. fistulas
    an abnormal passage from one organ or cavity to another: a rectovaginal fistula occurs between the vagina and the rectum, and a vesicovaginal fistula occurs between the urinary bladder and the vagina
  74. hysteratresia
    a closure of the uterus resulting in an abnormal obstruction within the uterine canal that may interfere with childbirth
  75. leiomyoma
    a condition of benign tumors in the muscular wall of the uterus, also known as fibroid tumors
  76. mastitis
    inflammation of the breast often caused by bacterial infection of the lactiferous ducts within breast tissue
  77. mastoptosis
    a condition of a breast that that is abnormally pendulous or sagging
  78. oophoropathy
    the general term for any disease of an ovary
  79. oophoritis
    inflammation of an ovary
  80. ovarian cancer
    the most common form of reproductive cancer in women
  81. ovarian cyst
    a cyst on an ovary that is usually benign and asymptomatic, although in some cases it may cause pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea
  82. polycystic ovary syndrome
    a hormonal disturbance characterized by lack of ovulation, amenorrhea, infertility, and ovarian cysts
  83. parovarian cyst
    an ovarian cyst that spreads into the fallopian tube
  84. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    inflammation involving some or all of the female reproductive organs within the pelvic cavity
  85. premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
    a collection of symptoms, including nervous tension, irritablity, breast pain (mastalgia), edema, and headache, usually occurring during the days preceding menstruation
  86. prolapsed uterus
    a condition in which the uterus may become displaced to shift downward into the vagina
  87. salpingitis
    inflammation of a fallopian tube
  88. salpingocele
    a protrusion, or herniation, of a fallopian tube wall
  89. toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
    a severe bacterial infection characterized by a sudden high fever, skin rash, mental confusion, acute renal failure, and abnormal liver function
  90. vaginitis
    inflammation of the vagina. Also called colpitis
  91. vulvitis
    inflammation of the external genitals, or vulva.
  92. vulvovaginitis
    inflammation of the external glands and vagina
  93. biopsy (bx or Bx)
    a minor surgical procedure that involves the surgical extraction of tissue for microscopic analysis
  94. cervicectomy
    surgical removal of the cervix
  95. colpectomy
    surgical removal of the vagina. Alternatively called vaginectomy
  96. colpoplasty
    surgical repair of the vagina
  97. colporrhaphy
    a procedure involving suturing the wall of the vagina
  98. dilation and curettage (D&C)
    a common procedure that is used for both diagnostic and treatment purposes involving the widening of the cervical canal and scraping of the uterus lining
  99. endometrial ablation
    a procedure in which lasers, electricity, or heat is used to destroy the endometrium
  100. gynecology (GYN)
    branch of medicine focusing on women; a physician known as an obstetrician-gynecologist combines these two areas of expertise, abbreviated OB/GYN
  101. gynopathology
    the study of diseases that afflict women
  102. hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    a therapy for hormonal management, which can be very effective in correcting disrupted menstrual and ovarian cycles
  103. hysterectomy
    the surgical removal of the uterus
  104. hysteropexy
    the surgical procedure that may be used to correct a prolapsed uterus by strengthening its connections to the abdominal wall to correct its position
  105. hysteroscopy
    a noninvasive diagnostic technique that uses a modified endoscope, called a hysteroscope, to evaluate the uterine cavity
  106. laparoscope
    is inserted through a small incision through the lower abdominal wall during a laparoscopy, to evaluate the external appearance of the uterus and other organs of the pelvic cavity
  107. mammography
    an X-ray procedure that produces an X-ray image of a breast, called a mammogram
  108. mammoplasty
    the surgical repair of one or both breasts, including enlargement or reduction of breast size, reconstruction, or tumor removal
  109. mastectomy
    the surgical removal of breast tissue; types include simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, and lumpectomy
  110. oophorectomy
    the surgical removal of an ovary
  111. Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear)
    a common diagnostic procedure that screens for precancerous cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer; also known as Pap smear or Pap test
  112. salpingectomy
    the surgical removal of fallopian tube
  113. salpingopexy
    the surgical fixation of a fallopian tube
  114. salpingostomy
    a procedure to open a blocked fallopian tube or to drain fluid from an inflamed tube
  115. sonohysterography
    a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound waves to visualize the uterus within the pelvic cavity
  116. tubal ligation
    a common form of female sterilization as a contraceptive measure in which fallopian tubes are severed and closed to prevent the migration of sperm upward into the tubes
  117. vaginal speculum
    an instrument used to open the vaginal orifice wide enough to permit visual examination of the vagina and cervix
  118. vulvectomy
    the surgical removal of the vulva
  119. amniorrhea
    abnormal discharge of amniotic fluid that is a sign of a ruptured amniotic sac
  120. dystocia
    difficult labor
  121. hyperemesis gravidarum
    a condition of severe nausea and emesis (vomiting) during pregnancy
  122. lactorrhea
    a normal, spontaneous discharge of milk
  123. polyhydramnios
    the excessive production of amniotic fluid during fetal development
  124. pseudocyesis
    a sensation of being pregnant when a true pregnancy does not exist
  125. abruptio placentae
    a premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
  126. breech presentation
    abnormal childbirth presentation in which the buttocks, feet, or knees appear through the birth canal first
  127. congenital anomaly
    an abnormality present at birth
  128. eclampsia
    a condition of high blood pressure associated with a pregnancy that may worsen to cause convulsions and possibly coma and death
  129. ectopic pregnancy
    a pregnancy occurring outside the uterus
  130. erythroblastosis fetalis
    a condition of neonates in which red blood cells are destroyed due to an incompatibility between the mothers' blood and baby's blood, also called hemolytic disease of the newborn
  131. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    a neonatal condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
  132. neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS)
    a lung disorder of neonates, particularly premature infants, in which certain cells of the lungs fail to mature at birth to cause lung collapse that can result in suffocation, abbreviated NRDS; it is also called respiratory distress syndrome of the newboard
  133. placenta previa
    a condition in which the placenta is abnormally attached to the uterine wall in the lower portion of the uterus
  134. toxoplasmosis
    a disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that may be contracted by exposure to animal feces, most commonly from household cats
  135. abortion
    • termination of pregnancy by expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus. 
    • A natural expulsion is called a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion (SAB)
  136. amniocentesis
    a procedure that involves penetration of the amnion with a syringe and aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis
  137. cesarean section
    an alternative to the nonsurgical birth of a child through the birth canal, birthing can be accomplished surgically by making an incision through the abdomen and uterus, abbreviated C-section
  138. contraception
    the use of devices and drugs to prevent fertilization, implantation of a fertilized egg, or both
  139. epidural block
    the injection of a spinal block anesthetic into the epidural space
  140. episiotomy
    an incision through the vulva and perineum to widen the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing during childbirth
  141. fetometry
    a procedure that measures the size of a fetus using ultrasound technology on the pregnant mother in the technique known as obstetrical sonography
  142. obstetrics
    the medical field concerned with prenatal development, pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, abbreviated OB
  143. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    a disease that results from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, acquired mainly through the exchange of body fluids during sex, such as semen, blood, and vaginal secretions, and also by the use of contaminated instruments
  144. candidiasis
    infection by the yeastlike fungi, Candida albicans, often sexually transmitted
  145. chlamydia
    the most common bacterial STI in North America
  146. genital herpes
    a type of herpes characterized by periodic outbreaks of ulcerlike sores on the external genitals; caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2
  147. gonorrhea
    an STI that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  148. hepatitis B (hep B)
    an inflammatory disease of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis virus and is spread through sexual contact, commonly called hep B
  149. human papillomavirus (HPV)
    a virus that is extremely common in the human population and is transmitted during sexual intercourse; it is characterized by onset of genital warts
  150. syphilis
    an STI caused by a bacterium called a spirochete (Treponema pallidum)
  151. trichomoniasis
    an STI caused by the protozoan Trichomonas, which is an amoeba-like single-celled organism

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