Anatomy- Head Part 1.txt

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Mawad
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299788
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Anatomy- Head Part 1.txt
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2015-04-02 20:58:29
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vetmed equine head
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  1. What are the limits of the nasal cavity?
    extends from nares to level of eyes
  2. What are the 2 types of mucosa and their functions in the nasal cavity?
    respiratory epithelium that helps to warm and filter inspired air; olfactory epithelium for sense of smell
  3. The wings of the nostril are called ________; the two divisions are...
    alae; lateral alae, medial alae
  4. The lateral ala is formed by...
    skin and muscle
  5. The medial ala is formed by...
    skin and cartilage
  6. The point here the medial and lateral alae meet.
    commissures
  7. What is the alar fold?
    flap of skin that reflects into the nasal cavity that separates the nostril into dorsal and ventral parts
  8. What does the alar fold attach to?
    ventral concha (turbinate bone)
  9. When placing an NG tube, direct it _________ to avoid the __________.
    ventrally;; nasal diverticulum
  10. What is the nasal diverticulum?
    blind-ended pouch in the dorsal part of the nasal cavity; aka "false nostril"
  11. What are the functions of the nasal cartilage?
    give shape and support to nostril; pliable
  12. What are the divisions of nasal cartilage?
    dorsal lateral, alar, medial accessory
  13. The dorsal lateral nasal cartilage attaches to the _________.
    nasal bone
  14. What are the 2 parts of the alar nasal cartilage? Describe them.
    lamina- sheet like part, cornu- curved part
  15. Where does the alar nasal cartilage lie?
    C-shaped cartilage lying directly under the skin on the medial ala
  16. The medial accessory nasal cartilage is covered by the __________.
    alar fold
  17. Hyaline cartilage along the midline of the head; may get inflamed with infection and cause obstruction of air flow.
    nasal septum
  18. What is the dorsal boundary of the nasal cavity?
    nasal bone
  19. What are the lateral boundaries of the nasal cavity?
    incisive bone, maxilla, lacrimal bone, zygomatic bone
  20. What is the ventral boundary of the nasal cavity?
    hard palate
  21. What are the divisions of the nasal conchae?
    dorsal, middle, ventral, ethmoidal
  22. Where is the dorsal nasal meatus?
    b/w nasal bone and dorsal concha
  23. Where is the middle nasal meatus?
    b/w dorsal and ventral conchae
  24. Where is the ventral nasal meatus?
    b/w ventral concha and hard palate
  25. Where is the common nasal meatus?
    extends from the roof to the floor of the nasal cavity b/ the nasal septum and the medial surface of the dorsal and ventral conchae
  26. What are the internal nares? What are the aka?
    exit from nasal cavity into pharynx; choanae
  27. What are the external nares?
    entrance into nasal cavity
  28. What is the blood supply to the nostril?
    nasal arteries
  29. What is the blood supply to the nasal cavity?
    sphenopalatine a.
  30. What is the sensory innervation to the nostril?
    infraorbital n.
  31. what nerve do you stimulate when you twitch a horse?
    infraorbital n.
  32. What in the motor innervation to the nostril?
    branches of the facial n. (CN VII)
  33. What nerves are in the nasal cavity, and hat are their functions?
    CN I- olfaction, CN V- sensory to mucosa
  34. What are the divisions of the mouth?
    vestibule and oral cavity proper
  35. What is the vestibule?
    space lateral to the teeth
  36. What is the oral cavity proper?
    space medial to the teeth
  37. What are the bones of the hard palate?
    maxilla, palatine bone, incisive bone
  38. What are the raphe of the roof of the mouth?
    midline of oral cavity along the roof
  39. What are the ridges/rugae of the oral cavity? hat is their function?
    mucosa of hard palate; helps to hold food in the oral cavity
  40. What is the incisive papilla?
    rounded bump behind the teeth; blind-ended portion of the nasoincisive ducct
  41. What is the sublingual caruncle?
    triangular flap of mucosa at the rostral end of the oral cavity; opening for mandibular salivary glands
  42. Where is the sublingual fold and what structures are located there?
    extends caudally from sublingual caruncle; contains openings for the polystomatic sublingual salivary glands
  43. What salivary glands from the dog do horses lack?
    monostomatic sublingual salivary gland
  44. What is the lingual frenulum?
    fold of mucosa from the floor of the mouth to the bottom of the tongue
  45. What are the 3 parts of the tongue?
    root, body (attached to frenulum), apex (free portion)
  46. 4 types of lingual papillae.
    filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate
  47. Location, shape, and function of filiform papillae?
    on body and apex; conical-shaped; mechanical function
  48. Location, shape, and function of fungiform papillae?
    laterally-located and scattered; round; gustatory
  49. Location, shape, and function of the vallate papillae?
    anatomical landmark dividing root from body of tongue; circular w/ a sulcus; gustatory
  50. Location, shape, and function of foliate papillae?
    ridges laterally- located around root of tongue; leaf-shaped; gustatory
  51. Where are the intrinsic lingual muscles?
    w/i the tongue
  52. What extrinsic lingual muscle is laterally located?
    Styloglossus m.
  53. What extrinsic lingual muscle is at the root of the tongue?
    Hyoglossus m.
  54. What extrinsic lingual muscle is medially located?
    Genioglossus m.
  55. What are 3 associated extrinsic lingual muscles?
    geniohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, and mylohyoideus mm.
  56. Styloglossus m. originates from the __________ of the _________ and goes to the __________ of the __________.
    distal end; stylohyoid bone; lateral aspect; tongue
  57. Hyoglossus m. extends from the _____________ into the ___________.
    hyoid apparatus; root of the tongue
  58. Genioglossus m. goes from the _______ to the _______; it is _____-shaped.
    chin; tongue; fan
  59. What muscle is right on the midline between the hyoid and epiglottis?
    hyoepiglotticus m.
  60. Sheet-like muscle that spans the inter-mandibular space.
    mylohyoideus m.
  61. What is the blood supply to the tongue?
    lingual and sublingual (branch of the facial a.) arteries
  62. What is the sensory innervation to the tongue?
    lingual n.
  63. What is the taste innervation to the tongue?
    rostral 2/3 via branches of facial n. (CN VII), caudal 1/3 via branches of glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
  64. What is the motor innervation to the tongue?
    hypoglossal n. (CN XII)
  65. What types of salivary glands do horses have?
    parotid, mandibular, polystomatic sublingual, buccal
  66. Parotid salivary glands are from the ________ to the __________; they open at the _________, which is...
    base of the ear; angle of the mandible; parotid papilla; opposite the upper 4th premolar.
  67. The mandibular salivary glands are __________ to the ___________; they are __________-shaped; they open on the ______________.
    medial; mandible; crescent; sublingual caruncle
  68. The polystomatic sublingual salivary glands open along the ___________; they are located under the ____________.
    sublingual fold; sublingual fold
  69. The buccal salivary glands are located _____________; they are analogous to the ___________ of the canine.
    diffusely under the cheeks; zygomatic salivary glands
  70. Funnel-shaped area (musculomembranous) at the caudal aspect of the nasal cavity; respiratory and digestive systems meet.
    pharynx
  71. Structure that separates the naso- and oropharynx.
    soft palate
  72. What are the 3 aspects of the pharynx?
    nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  73. Structure dorsal to the esophagus.
    palatopharyngeal arch
  74. Structure extending from the soft palate down to the tongue.
    palatoglossal arch
  75. What is the function of the pharyngeal muscles?
    constrict that decrease the size of the pharynx
  76. What are the pharyngeal muscles from caudal to cranial (rostral)?
    cricopharyngeus, thyropharyngeus, hyopharyngeus
  77. What are the 5 tonsillar tissues?
    lingual tonsils, palatine tonsils, tonsils of the soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, tubal tonsils
  78. What are the lingual tonsils located?
    diffusely scattered under the mucosa of the root of the tongue
  79. What is the location of the palatine tonsils?
    on the floor of the pharynx, where the floor of the oral cavity joins the wall of the oral cavity
  80. What is the location of the tonsils of the soft palate?
    oval-shaped spot on the soft palate
  81. What is the location of the pharyngeal tonsil?
    in dorsolateral wall of the nasopharynx
  82. Where are the tubal tonsils located?
    surrounds the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube
  83. Endoscopic landmark that is the communication b/w the auditory tube and nasopharynx.
    pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube
  84. What is the function of the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube?
    helps to neutralize pressure
  85. What is unique about the ruminants upper dentition?
    no upper incisors or canines; instead dental pad
  86. What are the mucosal modifications of the ruminant oral cavity?
    conical papillae- in vestibule along the lips on upper and lower cheeks; help hold food inside the mouth.
  87. What is the lingual fossa in ruminants?
    separates apex from body of tongue; may trap foreign bodies
  88. What is the torus linguae in ruminants?
    tissue caudal and elevated to the lingual fossa
  89. What papillae are present in ruminants?
    conical, lenticular, fungiform, filiform, vallate
  90. Ruminants do not have ________ papillae.
    foliate
  91. What are the gustatory papillae of ruminants?
    fungiform and vallate papillae
  92. The flap of mucosa that partially divides the nasal cavity into halves in ruminants.
    pharyngeal septum
  93. What is the only difference b/w equine and ruminant tonsils?
    palatine tonsil consists of a sinus/ cavity in the wall of the oropharynx that leads to a diverticular pouch containing tonsillar tissue

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