Anatomy- Head Part 1.txt
Card Set Information
Anatomy- Head Part 1.txt
vetmed equine head
What are the limits of the nasal cavity?
extends from nares to level of eyes
What are the 2 types of mucosa and their functions in the nasal cavity?
respiratory epithelium that helps to warm and filter inspired air; olfactory epithelium for sense of smell
The wings of the nostril are called ________; the two divisions are...
alae; lateral alae, medial alae
The lateral ala is formed by...
skin and muscle
The medial ala is formed by...
skin and cartilage
The point here the medial and lateral alae meet.
What is the alar fold?
flap of skin that reflects into the nasal cavity that separates the nostril into dorsal and ventral parts
What does the alar fold attach to?
ventral concha (turbinate bone)
When placing an NG tube, direct it _________ to avoid the __________.
ventrally;; nasal diverticulum
What is the nasal diverticulum?
blind-ended pouch in the dorsal part of the nasal cavity; aka "false nostril"
What are the functions of the nasal cartilage?
give shape and support to nostril; pliable
What are the divisions of nasal cartilage?
dorsal lateral, alar, medial accessory
The dorsal lateral nasal cartilage attaches to the _________.
What are the 2 parts of the alar nasal cartilage? Describe them.
lamina- sheet like part, cornu- curved part
Where does the alar nasal cartilage lie?
C-shaped cartilage lying directly under the skin on the medial ala
The medial accessory nasal cartilage is covered by the __________.
Hyaline cartilage along the midline of the head; may get inflamed with infection and cause obstruction of air flow.
What is the dorsal boundary of the nasal cavity?
What are the lateral boundaries of the nasal cavity?
incisive bone, maxilla, lacrimal bone, zygomatic bone
What is the ventral boundary of the nasal cavity?
What are the divisions of the nasal conchae?
dorsal, middle, ventral, ethmoidal
Where is the dorsal nasal meatus?
b/w nasal bone and dorsal concha
Where is the middle nasal meatus?
b/w dorsal and ventral conchae
Where is the ventral nasal meatus?
b/w ventral concha and hard palate
Where is the common nasal meatus?
extends from the roof to the floor of the nasal cavity b/ the nasal septum and the medial surface of the dorsal and ventral conchae
What are the internal nares? What are the aka?
exit from nasal cavity into pharynx; choanae
What are the external nares?
entrance into nasal cavity
What is the blood supply to the nostril?
What is the blood supply to the nasal cavity?
What is the sensory innervation to the nostril?
what nerve do you stimulate when you twitch a horse?
What in the motor innervation to the nostril?
branches of the facial n. (CN VII)
What nerves are in the nasal cavity, and hat are their functions?
CN I- olfaction, CN V- sensory to mucosa
What are the divisions of the mouth?
vestibule and oral cavity proper
What is the vestibule?
space lateral to the teeth
What is the oral cavity proper?
space medial to the teeth
What are the bones of the hard palate?
maxilla, palatine bone, incisive bone
What are the raphe of the roof of the mouth?
midline of oral cavity along the roof
What are the ridges/rugae of the oral cavity? hat is their function?
mucosa of hard palate; helps to hold food in the oral cavity
What is the incisive papilla?
rounded bump behind the teeth; blind-ended portion of the nasoincisive ducct
What is the sublingual caruncle?
triangular flap of mucosa at the rostral end of the oral cavity; opening for mandibular salivary glands
Where is the sublingual fold and what structures are located there?
extends caudally from sublingual caruncle; contains openings for the polystomatic sublingual salivary glands
What salivary glands from the dog do horses lack?
monostomatic sublingual salivary gland
What is the lingual frenulum?
fold of mucosa from the floor of the mouth to the bottom of the tongue
What are the 3 parts of the tongue?
root, body (attached to frenulum), apex (free portion)
4 types of lingual papillae.
filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate
Location, shape, and function of filiform papillae?
on body and apex; conical-shaped; mechanical function
Location, shape, and function of fungiform papillae?
laterally-located and scattered; round; gustatory
Location, shape, and function of the vallate papillae?
anatomical landmark dividing root from body of tongue; circular w/ a sulcus; gustatory
Location, shape, and function of foliate papillae?
ridges laterally- located around root of tongue; leaf-shaped; gustatory
Where are the intrinsic lingual muscles?
w/i the tongue
What extrinsic lingual muscle is laterally located?
What extrinsic lingual muscle is at the root of the tongue?
What extrinsic lingual muscle is medially located?
What are 3 associated extrinsic lingual muscles?
geniohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, and mylohyoideus mm.
Styloglossus m. originates from the __________ of the _________ and goes to the __________ of the __________.
distal end; stylohyoid bone; lateral aspect; tongue
Hyoglossus m. extends from the _____________ into the ___________.
hyoid apparatus; root of the tongue
Genioglossus m. goes from the _______ to the _______; it is _____-shaped.
chin; tongue; fan
What muscle is right on the midline between the hyoid and epiglottis?
Sheet-like muscle that spans the inter-mandibular space.
What is the blood supply to the tongue?
lingual and sublingual (branch of the facial a.) arteries
What is the sensory innervation to the tongue?
What is the taste innervation to the tongue?
rostral 2/3 via branches of facial n. (CN VII), caudal 1/3 via branches of glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
What is the motor innervation to the tongue?
hypoglossal n. (CN XII)
What types of salivary glands do horses have?
parotid, mandibular, polystomatic sublingual, buccal
Parotid salivary glands are from the ________ to the __________; they open at the _________, which is...
base of the ear; angle of the mandible; parotid papilla; opposite the upper 4th premolar.
The mandibular salivary glands are __________ to the ___________; they are __________-shaped; they open on the ______________.
medial; mandible; crescent; sublingual caruncle
The polystomatic sublingual salivary glands open along the ___________; they are located under the ____________.
sublingual fold; sublingual fold
The buccal salivary glands are located _____________; they are analogous to the ___________ of the canine.
diffusely under the cheeks; zygomatic salivary glands
Funnel-shaped area (musculomembranous) at the caudal aspect of the nasal cavity; respiratory and digestive systems meet.
Structure that separates the naso- and oropharynx.
What are the 3 aspects of the pharynx?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Structure dorsal to the esophagus.
Structure extending from the soft palate down to the tongue.
What is the function of the pharyngeal muscles?
constrict that decrease the size of the pharynx
What are the pharyngeal muscles from caudal to cranial (rostral)?
cricopharyngeus, thyropharyngeus, hyopharyngeus
What are the 5 tonsillar tissues?
lingual tonsils, palatine tonsils, tonsils of the soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, tubal tonsils
What are the lingual tonsils located?
diffusely scattered under the mucosa of the root of the tongue
What is the location of the palatine tonsils?
on the floor of the pharynx, where the floor of the oral cavity joins the wall of the oral cavity
What is the location of the tonsils of the soft palate?
oval-shaped spot on the soft palate
What is the location of the pharyngeal tonsil?
in dorsolateral wall of the nasopharynx
Where are the tubal tonsils located?
surrounds the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube
Endoscopic landmark that is the communication b/w the auditory tube and nasopharynx.
pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube
What is the function of the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube?
helps to neutralize pressure
What is unique about the ruminants upper dentition?
no upper incisors or canines; instead dental pad
What are the mucosal modifications of the ruminant oral cavity?
conical papillae- in vestibule along the lips on upper and lower cheeks; help hold food inside the mouth.
What is the lingual fossa in ruminants?
separates apex from body of tongue; may trap foreign bodies
What is the torus linguae in ruminants?
tissue caudal and elevated to the lingual fossa
What papillae are present in ruminants?
conical, lenticular, fungiform, filiform, vallate
Ruminants do not have ________ papillae.
What are the gustatory papillae of ruminants?
fungiform and vallate papillae
The flap of mucosa that partially divides the nasal cavity into halves in ruminants.
What is the only difference b/w equine and ruminant tonsils?
palatine tonsil consists of a sinus/ cavity in the wall of the oropharynx that leads to a diverticular pouch containing tonsillar tissue