Anatomy- Head Part 2.txt

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Mawad
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299789
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Anatomy- Head Part 2.txt
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2015-04-02 20:59:02
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vetmed equine head
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  1. What is the function of the hyoid apparatus?
    to suspend the larynx
  2. The thyrohyoid bone attaches to the ____________.
    larynx
  3. The basiohyoid bone crosses the __________.
    midline
  4. The epihyoid is fused to the...
    distal part of the stylohyoid bone.
  5. The tympanohyoid is ___________ and fused to the ___________.
    cartilaginous; proximal part of the sytolohyoid bone.
  6. What is the function of the lingual process of the basihyoid bone?
    helps provide anchor for tongue
  7. What part of the hyoid apparatus articulates with the skull?
    proximal part of the stylohyoid bone
  8. What are the 6 components of the hyoid apparatus?
    thyrohyoid, basihyoid, ceratohyoid, epihyoid, stylohyoid, tympanohyoid
  9. What process comes from the epiglottis laryngeal cartilage?
    cuneiform process
  10. What are the 2 parts of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx?
    body located ventrally and lamina, which is sheet-like structure going to either side
  11. What structures project from the lamina of the thyroid cartilage?
    rostral and caudal cornu
  12. Where is the thyroid fissure? What is it referred to as when all the connective tissues are present on the apparatus?
    space b/w rostal cornu and lamina of thyroid; thyroid foramen
  13. What processes come off the arytenoid cartilage of the larynx?
    corniculate, muscular, vocal
  14. What are the parts of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx, and where are they located?
    dorsally, lamina and centrally and laterally, arch
  15. What are the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?
    hyoepiglotticus, sternothyroideus, thyrohyoideus
  16. What extrinsic laryngeal muscle is at the midline?
    hyoepiglotticus
  17. What structure passes through the thyroid foramen?
    cranial laryngeal n.
  18. What is the function of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
    to move the vocal cords
  19. What muscles does the cranial laryngeal n. provide motor innervation to?
    cricothyroideus m.
  20. Which muscle abducts the vocal fold to enlarge the airway?
    cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
  21. What is the glottis formed by?
    the vocal folds and parts of the arytenoid cartilage
  22. The cleft/opening of the glottis, which is the target when you're passing an ET tube.
    rima glottidis
  23. What are the boundaries of the rima glottidis?
    ventrally, vocal folds; dorsally, corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilage
  24. What are the 2 parts of the lateral laryngeal ventricles, and where are they located?
    rostrally, vestibular fold; caudally, vocal fold
  25. The vestibular fold of the lateral laryngeal ventricle wraps around the ____________.
    cuneiform process of the epiglottis
  26. The vocal fold of the lateral laryngeal ventricle wraps around the _______________.
    vocal process of the arytenoid process
  27. Where is the median laryngeal ventricle located?
    immediately caudal to the epiglottis, ventrally
  28. What are the 2 ligaments of the larynx?
    cricothyroid ligament and cricotracheal ligament
  29. Where is the cricothyroid ligament located?
    fills the thyroid notch, b/w the arch of the cricoid and body of the thyroid
  30. The cranial laryngeal n. is sensory to...
    the mucosa of the larynx.
  31. The innervation to the larynx comes from...
    recurrent laryngeal n. and cranial laryngeal n.
  32. Describe the disorder called roaring in horses.
    one-sided paralysis (usually left side) b/c something disrupts the recurrent laryngeal n., preventing the vocal fold (cricoarytenoideus dorsal m.) from being abducted.
  33. What is the anatomic name for roaring?
    laryngeal hemiplagia
  34. 3 possible causes of roaring.
    long recurrent laryngeal n., aortic pulsation puts pressure on recurrent laryngeal n., enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes put pressure on recurrent laryngeal n.
  35. 3 possible treatments for roaring.
    ventriculectomy (remove lateral ventricle so scar tissue can retract vocal fold out of airway), "tie back" ( use suture to permanently retract cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.), reinnervation (transplant neuromuscular flap from omohyoideus m.)
  36. What makes up the facial crest?
    rostral part comes from maxilla, caudal part comes from zygomatic bone
  37. The supraorbital foramen is in the ________ of the _________; ____________ passes through it.
    zygomatic process; frontal bone; supraorbital n.
  38. The infraorbital foramen is in the _________ at the end of the ___________; _________ exits from it rostrally.
    maxilla; infraorbital canal; infraorbital n.
  39. The maxillary foramen is below the _______ at the ________ aspect of the _______.
    orbit; caudal; infraorbital canal
  40. The foramen lacerum is the exit for ____________ at the caudal aspect, __________ rostroventrally, and __________ dorsally.
    CN IX, X, XI; internal carotid a. and n.; mandibular n.
  41. The mandibular foramen is located...
    on the inside of the mandible.
  42. What travel through the mandibular foramen?
    inferior alveolar n., a., and v. to provide lower teeth
  43. The mental foramen is where...
    inferior alveolar n. exit as mental nn. to innervate the chin.
  44. The coronoid process of the mandible is...
    projecting upward.
  45. The condylar process of the mandible is...
    flat and located more caudally (than coronoid process).
  46. The angle of the mandible is...
    the junction of the body and ramus.
  47. What is the vascular groove of the mandible?
    concavity where facial a. and v. and parotid salivary duct pass.
  48. What is the significance of the vascular groove of the mandible?
    site to take pulse
  49. What bony prominences make up the orbit?
    zygomatic process of frontal bone, zygomatic process of temporal bone, temporal process of zygomatic bone
  50. Compare the equine and canine orbit.
    orbit of equine is completely bony (lacks ligament).
  51. What muscles in the equine make up the equivalent of the platysma m. in the canine?
    cutaneus faciei and cutaneus colli
  52. The zygomaticus m. comes off the _________.
    facial crest
  53. The depressor labii inferioris m. goes to the _________.
    lower lip
  54. What muscle forms the cheek wall?
    buccinator
  55. What muscle elevates the nose and lips?
    levator nasolabialis
  56. What muscle passes through levator nasolabialis m. to go to the nose?
    caninus m.
  57. The levator labii superioris goes to the ___________.
    upper lip
  58. What muscle surrounds the mouth?
    orbicularis oris m.
  59. What muscle lies on top of the parotid salivary gland?
    parotidoauricularis m.
  60. Motor innervation of the muscles of facial expression comes from the _______________.
    branches of the facial n. (CN VII)
  61. Motor innervation to the muscles of mastication comes from the _____________.
    trigeminal n. (CN V)
  62. What are the muscles of mastication?
    masseter, pterygoid, temporalis, digastricus
  63. What muscle is deep to the auricular muscles?
    temporalis m.
  64. What are the components of the digastricus m.?
    rostral belly and caudal belly
  65. The rostral belly of the digastricus m. is associated with the ____________ and receives motor innervation from the _____________.
    body of the mandible; trigeminal n. (CN V)
  66. The caudal belly of the digastricus m. has what components?
    caudal belly proper (smaller) and occipitomandibularis
  67. The caudal belly of the digastricus m. receives motor innervation from the ___________.
    facial n. (CN VII)
  68. The occipitomandibularis of the caudal belly of the digastricus m. inserts on the ____________.
    angle of the mandible
  69. What connects the rostral and caudal bellies of the digastricus m.?
    intermediate tendon
  70. Where does the intermediate tendon pass?
    through the stylohyoideus m.
  71. Fairly superficial nn. that pass over the masseter m. and provide motor innervation.
    buccal branches of facial n.
  72. Why are the buccal branches of the facial n. clinically relevant?
    often implicated in facial paralysis
  73. Motor innervation for the eyelid and ear.
    auriculopalpebral n.
  74. The auriculopalpebral n. branches off the ___________.
    facial n.
  75. The auriculotemporal n. branches off the _____________.
    trigeminal n. (CN V)
  76. What branch does auriculotemporal n. give off?
    transverse facial branch of the auriculotemporal n.
  77. The transverse facial branch of auriculotemporal n. has what function?
    sensory n.
  78. What are the 5 branches of the facial a.?
    inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, dorsal nasal, angularis oculi aa.
  79. The inferior labial a. branches off the _________ and goes to the _________.
    facial a.; lower lip
  80. The superior labial a. branches off the __________ and goes to the __________.
    facial a.; upper lip
  81. The lateral nasal a. branches off the ___________ and goes to the _____________.
    facial a.; nostril
  82. The dorsal nasal a. branches off the ___________ and goes to the ___________.
    facial a.; the top of the face
  83. The angularis oculi a. branches off the ____________ and goes to the ____________.
    facial a.; eye
  84. What veins of the face have associated venous sinuses?
    transverse facial v., deep facial v., buccal v.
  85. The transverse facial vein runs under the ___________ with the ___________ and ____________.
    facial crest; transverse facial branch of the auriculotemporal n.; transverse facial a.
  86. The facial vein runs b/w the __________ and __________.
    facial a.; parotid duct
  87. The ventral border of Viborg's triangle.
    linguofacial v.
  88. What veins fuse to form the external jugular vein?
    linguofacial v. and maxillary vein
  89. In general, sensory innervation to the face comes from...
    What is the exception?
    trigeminal n. (CN V); motor to muscles of mastication and rostral belly of digastricus m.
  90. In general, motor innervation to the face comes from...
    What is the exception?
    facial n. (CN VII) {to muscles of facial expression}; also, caudal belly of digastricus m.
  91. The parotid duct follows the _____________ through the ____________; it empties at the _________, which is...
    facial a. and v.; vascular groove; parotid papilla; opposite the upper 4th premolar.
  92. Where are the mandibular lymph nodes located?
    ventrally in the intermandibular space

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