What process comes from the epiglottis laryngeal cartilage?
What are the 2 parts of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx?
body located ventrally and lamina, which is sheet-like structure going to either side
What structures project from the lamina of the thyroid cartilage?
rostral and caudal cornu
Where is the thyroid fissure? What is it referred to as when all the connective tissues are present on the apparatus?
space b/w rostal cornu and lamina of thyroid; thyroid foramen
What processes come off the arytenoid cartilage of the larynx?
corniculate, muscular, vocal
What are the parts of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx, and where are they located?
dorsally, lamina and centrally and laterally, arch
What are the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?
hyoepiglotticus, sternothyroideus, thyrohyoideus
What extrinsic laryngeal muscle is at the midline?
What structure passes through the thyroid foramen?
cranial laryngeal n.
What is the function of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
to move the vocal cords
What muscles does the cranial laryngeal n. provide motor innervation to?
Which muscle abducts the vocal fold to enlarge the airway?
cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
What is the glottis formed by?
the vocal folds and parts of the arytenoid cartilage
The cleft/opening of the glottis, which is the target when you're passing an ET tube.
What are the boundaries of the rima glottidis?
ventrally, vocal folds; dorsally, corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilage
What are the 2 parts of the lateral laryngeal ventricles, and where are they located?
rostrally, vestibular fold; caudally, vocal fold
The vestibular fold of the lateral laryngeal ventricle wraps around the ____________.
cuneiform process of the epiglottis
The vocal fold of the lateral laryngeal ventricle wraps around the _______________.
vocal process of the arytenoid process
Where is the median laryngeal ventricle located?
immediately caudal to the epiglottis, ventrally
What are the 2 ligaments of the larynx?
cricothyroid ligament and cricotracheal ligament
Where is the cricothyroid ligament located?
fills the thyroid notch, b/w the arch of the cricoid and body of the thyroid
The cranial laryngeal n. is sensory to...
the mucosa of the larynx.
The innervation to the larynx comes from...
recurrent laryngeal n. and cranial laryngeal n.
Describe the disorder called roaring in horses.
one-sided paralysis (usually left side) b/c something disrupts the recurrent laryngeal n., preventing the vocal fold (cricoarytenoideus dorsal m.) from being abducted.
What is the anatomic name for roaring?
3 possible causes of roaring.
long recurrent laryngeal n., aortic pulsation puts pressure on recurrent laryngeal n., enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes put pressure on recurrent laryngeal n.
3 possible treatments for roaring.
ventriculectomy (remove lateral ventricle so scar tissue can retract vocal fold out of airway), "tie back" ( use suture to permanently retract cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.), reinnervation (transplant neuromuscular flap from omohyoideus m.)
What makes up the facial crest?
rostral part comes from maxilla, caudal part comes from zygomatic bone
The supraorbital foramen is in the ________ of the _________; ____________ passes through it.
zygomatic process; frontal bone; supraorbital n.
The infraorbital foramen is in the _________ at the end of the ___________; _________ exits from it rostrally.
maxilla; infraorbital canal; infraorbital n.
The maxillary foramen is below the _______ at the ________ aspect of the _______.
orbit; caudal; infraorbital canal
The foramen lacerum is the exit for ____________ at the caudal aspect, __________ rostroventrally, and __________ dorsally.
CN IX, X, XI; internal carotid a. and n.; mandibular n.
The mandibular foramen is located...
on the inside of the mandible.
What travel through the mandibular foramen?
inferior alveolar n., a., and v. to provide lower teeth
The mental foramen is where...
inferior alveolar n. exit as mental nn. to innervate the chin.
The coronoid process of the mandible is...
The condylar process of the mandible is...
flat and located more caudally (than coronoid process).
The angle of the mandible is...
the junction of the body and ramus.
What is the vascular groove of the mandible?
concavity where facial a. and v. and parotid salivary duct pass.
What is the significance of the vascular groove of the mandible?
site to take pulse
What bony prominences make up the orbit?
zygomatic process of frontal bone, zygomatic process of temporal bone, temporal process of zygomatic bone
Compare the equine and canine orbit.
orbit of equine is completely bony (lacks ligament).
What muscles in the equine make up the equivalent of the platysma m. in the canine?
cutaneus faciei and cutaneus colli
The zygomaticus m. comes off the _________.
The depressor labii inferioris m. goes to the _________.
What muscle forms the cheek wall?
What muscle elevates the nose and lips?
What muscle passes through levator nasolabialis m. to go to the nose?
The levator labii superioris goes to the ___________.
What muscle surrounds the mouth?
orbicularis oris m.
What muscle lies on top of the parotid salivary gland?
Motor innervation of the muscles of facial expression comes from the _______________.
branches of the facial n. (CN VII)
Motor innervation to the muscles of mastication comes from the _____________.
trigeminal n. (CN V)
What are the muscles of mastication?
masseter, pterygoid, temporalis, digastricus
What muscle is deep to the auricular muscles?
What are the components of the digastricus m.?
rostral belly and caudal belly
The rostral belly of the digastricus m. is associated with the ____________ and receives motor innervation from the _____________.
body of the mandible; trigeminal n. (CN V)
The caudal belly of the digastricus m. has what components?
caudal belly proper (smaller) and occipitomandibularis
The caudal belly of the digastricus m. receives motor innervation from the ___________.
facial n. (CN VII)
The occipitomandibularis of the caudal belly of the digastricus m. inserts on the ____________.
angle of the mandible
What connects the rostral and caudal bellies of the digastricus m.?
Where does the intermediate tendon pass?
through the stylohyoideus m.
Fairly superficial nn. that pass over the masseter m. and provide motor innervation.
buccal branches of facial n.
Why are the buccal branches of the facial n. clinically relevant?
often implicated in facial paralysis
Motor innervation for the eyelid and ear.
The auriculopalpebral n. branches off the ___________.
The auriculotemporal n. branches off the _____________.
trigeminal n. (CN V)
What branch does auriculotemporal n. give off?
transverse facial branch of the auriculotemporal n.
The transverse facial branch of auriculotemporal n. has what function?