Anatomy- Head Part 3.txt

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Mawad
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299790
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Anatomy- Head Part 3.txt
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2015-04-02 20:59:22
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vetmed equine head
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  1. CN I
    olfactory n.; sensory for smell
  2. CN V
    trigeminal n.; sensory to the head and face; motor to muscles of mastication
  3. What are the principal parts of the trigeminal n.? And their functions?
    ophthalmic n. (sensory), maxillary n. (sensory), mandibular n. (sensory and motor)
  4. CN VII
    facial n.; sensory for taste; motor to the muscles of facial expression
  5. CN IX
    glossopharyngeal n.; sensory for taste; motor to pharyngeal muscles
  6. CN X
    vagus n.; sensory and motor for autonomic functions
  7. CN XI
    accessory n.; motor to cervical muscles
  8. CN XII
    hypoglossal n.; motor to muscles of the tongue
  9. The supraorbital n. branches off of the __________; what is its function?
    ophthalmic n.; sensory to upper eyelid and forehead
  10. The infraorbital n. branches off the ____________; what is its function?
    maxillary n.; sensory to upper lip and nostrils
  11. What are the 5 branches of the mandibular n.?
    buccal n., lingual n., inferior alveolar n., auriculotemporal n., unnamed motor nerves to the muscles of mastication
  12. The buccal n. branches off the __________ and functions as...
    mandibular n.; sensory to the cheek
  13. The lingual n. branches off the _________ and functions as...
    mandibular n.; sensory to the tongue
  14. The inferior alveolar n. branches off the _________ and function as.....; it goes through the _________ and continues as the __________.
    mandibular n.; sensory to lower dental arcade; mandibular canal; mental nn. (sensory to chin)
  15. The auriculotemporal n. branches off the _____________ and functions as...
    mandibular n.; sensory to facial structures
  16. The buccal branches of the facial nerve function as...
    motor to facial expression
  17. The cervical branch of the facial n. functions as...
    motor to cutaneus colli m.
  18. Functions of glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX).
    sensory for taste to the caudal part of the tongue, motor to pharyngeal mm.
  19. The cranial laryngeal n. branches off the ____________; it functions as...
    vagus n.; sensory to laryngeal mucosa, motor to cricothyroideus m.
  20. The recurrent laryngeal n. branches off the ________; it functions as...
    vagus n.; motor to laryngeal mm., except cricothyroideus; motor to pharyngeal mm.
  21. The vagal cardiac nn. are part of the __________ of the ANS; there are ___________ cardiac nn. of non-vagal origin.
    parasympathetic; sympathetic
  22. The dorsal branch of the accessory n. functions as...
    motor to brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, and trapezius mm.
  23. The ventral branch of the accessory n. functions as...
    motor to sternocephalicus m.
  24. The internal carotid a. goes to the __________ through the ____________.
    brain; foramen lacerum
  25. What are the branches of the external carotid a.?
    occipital a., linguofacial trunk, masseteric branch, caudal auricular a., superficial temporal a.
  26. The occipital a. branches off the __________ and goes...
    external carotid a.; back toward the atlas
  27. The linguofacial trunk branches off the _________ and gives off the ____________; then it bifurcates to the ____________ and __________.
    external carotid a.; ascending palatine a.; lingual a.; facial a.
  28. The sublingual a. branches off of the __________, which branches off the ____________.
    facial a.; linguofacial trunk
  29. The superficial temporal a. branches off the _____________ and bifurcates to the __________ and _________.
    external carotid a.; rostral auricular a.; transverse facial a.
  30. What is the last branch of the external carotid a.? What does it continue as?
    superficial temporal a.; maxillary a.
  31. The inferior alveolar a. branches off the ___________ and enters into the ___________.
    maxillary a.; mandibular foramen
  32. The artery of the auditory tube branches off of the ____________ and goes to the ____________.
    maxillary a.; auditory tube
  33. The Pterygoid branch branches off the ___________ and supplies the pterygoid m.
    maxillary a.
  34. The middle meningeal a. branches off the ___________.
    maxillary a.
  35. The caudal deep temporal a. branches off the ___________ at the _____________.
    maxillary a.; caudal aspect of the zygomatic arch
  36. After the __________ branches, the maxillary a. enters the _______ canal, and ________ and _________ branch within the canal.
    caudal deep temporal a.; alar; rostral deep temporal a.; external ophthalmic a.
  37. The external ophthalmic a. (from maxillary a.) gives off the __________, which goes through the ____________.
    supraorbital a.; supraorbital foramen
  38. The first branch off the maxillary a. after it emerges from the alar canal.
    buccal a.
  39. The infraorbital a. branches off the __________ gives off the _________ then goes through the __________.
    maxillary a. malar a.; infraorbital canal
  40. The malar a. (off the ___________) runs along the _____________.
    infraorbital a.; ventral aspect of the orbit
  41. The descending palatine a. branches off the _____________ and gives off...
    maxillary a.; minor palatine, major palatine, sphenopalatine aa.
  42. The minor palatine a. supplies...
    soft palate
  43. The major palatine a. goes to...
    the hard palate
  44. The sphenopalatine a. goes to...
    the nasal cavity.
  45. What are the paranasal sinuses of the horse?
    conchofrontal, maxillary, and sphenopalatine sinuses
  46. What are the components of the conchofrontal paranasal sinus?
    frontal sinus and sinus of dorsal concha
  47. The conchofrontal paranasal sinus communicates with the maxillary paranasal sinus by the ________________.
    frontomaxillary opening
  48. The sphenopalatine paranasal sinus is a communication b/w the...
    sphenoid and palatine sinuses.
  49. What is the caudal limit of the conchofrontal sinus?
    temporomandibular joint
  50. What is the rostral limit of the conchofrontal sinus?
    half way b/w the medial canthus and infraorbital foramen
  51. What is the lateral limit of the conchofrontal sinus?
    zygomatic process of the frontal bone
  52. What is the medial limit of the conchofrontal sinus?
    the midline
  53. What is the caudal surgical boundary of the conchofrontal sinus?
    supraorbital foramen
  54. What is the rostral surgical boundary of the conchofrontal sinus?
    half way b/w the medial canthus and infraorbital foramen
  55. What is the medial surgical boundary of the conchofrontal sinus?
    2cm lateral to midline
  56. What is the lateral surgical boundary of the conchofrontal sinus?
    supraorbital foramen to the intersection of medial and rostral boundaries
  57. What is the maxillary septum?
    bony arch that divides the maxillary sinus into rostral and caudal compartments
  58. The infraorbital canal divides the ___________ into...
    maxillary sinus; medial and lateral compartments.
  59. The medial rostral compartment of the maxillary sinus opens to the _____________.
    ventral concha sinus
  60. The communication b/w the rostral lateral and rostral medial compartments of the maxillary sinus.
    conchomaxillary opening
  61. The nasomaxillary aperture is the communication b/w the _____________ and _____________.
    maxillary sinus; middle nasal meatus
  62. The caudal surgical boundary of the maxillary sinus.
    medial canthus
  63. The rostral surgical boundary of the maxillary sinus.
    infraorbital foramen to facial crest
  64. The ventral surgical boundary of the maxillary sinus.
    facial crest
  65. The dorsal surgical boundary of the maxillary sinus.
    infraorbital foramen to the medial canthus
  66. What is the iridic granule? What is it aka?
    extension of the iris that protrudes into the pupil; corpora nigrans
  67. The lateral retropharyngeal ln. is ___________ to the external carotid a.
    dorsal
  68. The medial retropharyngeal ln. is ___________ to the external carotid a.
    ventral
  69. What is the cornual process in ruminants?
    part of the frontal bone that is covered w/ horn
  70. What is the temporal line of ruminants?
    edge of the frontal bone where you inject local anesthetic for dehorning
  71. What is the facial tuber of ruminants in comparison to equine?
    reduced facial crest of equine
  72. What is the transverse septum in ruminants?
    divides the frontal sinus into rostral and caudal parts
  73. What is the oblique septum in ruminants?
    splits the caudal part of the frontal sinus in half
  74. What is the cornual diverticulum in ruminants?
    space from frontal sinus into the cornual process (horn)
  75. What are the diverticulua within the frontal sinus?
    nuchal diverticulum and post-orbital diverticulum
  76. What is the caudal surgical boundary of the frontal sinus in ruminants?
    level of intercornual protuberance
  77. What is the intercornual protuberance in ruminants?
    bony protuberance on the head b/w the horns
  78. What is the lateral boundary of the surgical field of the frontal sinus in ruminants?
    temporal line
  79. What is the medial boundary of the surgical field for the frontal sinus in ruminants?
    median septum
  80. What is the rostral boundary of the surgical field of the frontal sinus in ruminants?
    transverse septum
  81. When making the incision at the transverse septum for access to the frontal sinus in ruminants, what must you be careful to avoid?
    frontal vein, coming from supraorbital foramen
  82. What is the caudal boundary of the surgical field for the maxillary sinus in ruminants?
    medial canthus to ventral limit
  83. What is the dorsal boundary of the surgical field for the maxillary sinus in ruminants?
    medial canthus to infraorbital foramen
  84. What is the rostral boundary of the surgical field for the maxillary sinus in ruminants?
    vertical plane through the facial tuberosity
  85. What is the ventral boundary of the surgical field for the maxillary sinus in ruminants?
    facial tuber of zygomatic arch

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