Anatomy- Head Part 4.txt

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Anatomy- Head Part 4.txt
2015-04-02 20:59:44
vetmed equine head

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  1. Where can you take the pulse in a bovine?
    facial a. at vascular groove
  2. Where can you take the pulse of a small ruminant?
    at transverse facial a.; they lack a facial a.
  3. Follow the blood flow to the horn of a bovine.
    common carotid a. --> external carotid a. --> superficial temporal a. --> cornual a. --> horn
  4. Follow the blood flow to the lip of a bovine.
    common carotid a. --> external carotid a. --> linguofacial trunk --> facial a. --> superior labial a. --> lip
  5. Where do you do a nerve block to dehorn a bovine?
    inject midway b/w the horn and the lateral canthus at the temporal line
  6. What nerve are you blocking when you do a nerve block prior to dehorning?
    cornual a.
  7. What are 2 reasons for failure of anesthesia when doing a nerve block before dehorning a bovine?
    cornual n. may take an abnormal path, may have an extra long infratrochlear n. which also needs to be blocked then
  8. What is the epikeras in ruminants?
    junction of skin and horn (analogous to periople of foot)
  9. What is the significance of the epikeras in ruminants?
    if it is not completely removed, scurs can form
  10. When and why do you perform disbudding in small ruminants?
    before 14 days because the bud has not yet rooted to the skull
  11. What nerves innervate the horn in small ruminants?
    cornual n. at caudal aspect, branches of infratrochlear n. at cranial aspect
  12. What is different about doing a nerve block prior to disbudding/dehorning a goat (as compared to a bovine)?
    must always block the infratrochlear n.
  13. Small ruminants have a ________ frontal sinus than bovines.
  14. Why must you be careful when disbudding small ruminants with a thermal dehorner (as compared to bovines)?
    they have a smaller frontal sinus (easier to fry brain) and there is not the extensive overgrowth of the frontal bone and sinus as in the bovine species
  15. What are potential complications of disbudding small ruminants?
    if you hold the thermal dehorner on too long, you can cause thermal meningitis (infection of the frontal sinus/ brain); when dehorning older animals, must have proper aftercare because frontal sinus will be exposed
  16. What is the horn gland in goats?
    gland at the caudomedial aspect of the base of the horn
  17. What gland do sheep have on their face?
    glands of the infraorbital sinus that releases a waxy substance
  18. What is the gutteral pouch?
    mucosecretory diverticulum off of the auditory tube
  19. What are the dorsal boundaries of the gutteral pouch?
    base of the skull to the atlas
  20. What are the ventral boundaries of the gutteral pouch?
    the pharynx and esophagus
  21. What are the compartments of the gutteral pouch and what separates them?
    lateral (smaller) and medial (larger) compartments, separated by the stylohyoid bone
  22. What are 4 methods to surgically accessing the gutteral pouch?
    Viborg's triangle, hyovertebrotomy, Whitehouse, Modified Whitehouse
  23. Describe the hyovertebrotomy method of accessing the gutteral pouch.
    incision midway b/w the ing of the atlas and the stylohyoid bone
  24. Describe the Whitehouse and Modified Whitehouse methods of surgically accessing the gutteral pouch.
    • Whitehouse- ventral midline incision in the neck/ throat (not used anymore).
    • Modified Whitehouse- ventral paramedian incision parallel to linguofacial vein.
  25. Why is nasal discharge a clinical sign of gutteral pouch disease?
    empyema (pus in body cavity) drains from gutteral pouch through the communication b/w gutteral pouch and pharyngeal opening of auditory tube
  26. Why is epistaxis a clinical sign of gutteral pouch disease?
    gutteral pouch infection w/ Aspergillus fungus or other pathogen can cause bleeding from nose because the internal carotid a. is in contact w/ the dorsomedial aspect of the pouch, and it can become eroded and bleed
  27. What is the association b/w the gutteral pouch an the internal carotid a.?
    internal carotid a. is in contact w// the dorsomedial aspect of the gutteral pouch
  28. How does gutteral pouch disease cause dysphagia?
    difficulty swallowing b/c glossopharyngeal n. and vagus n. (both control swallowing) are closely associated with the membrane of the gutteral pouch
  29. Describe tympany and how it occurs.
    air trapped in gutteral pouch; animal has redundant membrane of the gutteral pouch, which prevents air from leaving the gutteral pouch
  30. What is Horner's syndrome?
    problem with the sympathetic nervous system, primarily the cranial cervical ganglion, which can be caused by gutteral pouch disease
  31. CN IX and X control _________ and are associated with the __________ of the gutteral pouch.
    swallowing; medial aspect
  32. CN XII (hypoglossal n.) is immediately __________ to the linguofacial trunk; CN IX (glossopharyngeal n.) is _________ to the linguofacial trunk.
    caudal; cranial
  33. What vascular structure passes b/w the medial and lateral compartments of the gutteral pouch?
    linguofacial trunk
  34. What are 7 aging factors for horses?
    eruption dates, shape of tooth, wear pattern, dietary influence, angle of arcade, genetics, whole animal
  35. What is the most accurate aging factor for horses?
    eruption date of the lower permenant incisors
  36. What is the equine deciduous dental formula?
    i3/3, c0/0, p3/3
  37. What is the equine permanent dental formula?
    I3/3, C1/1 (except females), P3 or 4/3, M 3/3)
  38. Describe the premolars in adult horses?
    upper first premolar is variable(wolf tooth), lower first premolar is absent
  39. What is the wolf tooth in horses?
    vestigial upper first premolar
  40. Describe equine canines and when they erupt.
    erupt b/w 3-5 years of age; usually in males only
  41. What is the diastema?
    natural or artificial interdental space b/w the canine and first premolar (cheek tooth) also a smaller diastema b/w canine and incisor
  42. 3 characteristics of hypsodont teeth.
    high crown, roots form late, tooth grows continuously w/ age
  43. 3 characteristics of brachydont teeth.
    short crown, distinct neck, fully formed root
  44. In horse teeth, the _______ cusp is initially taller than the ________ cusp.
    labial; lingual
  45. The pulp cavity extends ________ to the infundibulum.
  46. What does the term "in wear" mean? When does it usually occur?
    upper and lower incisors come in contact; ~6 months after tooth erupts
  47. ________ cusps wear first.
    labial (they're taller)
  48. What does the term "level" mean in regards to teeth?
    cusps are equally worn
  49. What does "cup gone" mean?
    there is no longer a cavity in the infundibulum
  50. What is the "enamel spot"?
    cement and enamel in bottom of cup
  51. What is the "dental star"?
    secondary deposition of dentine in the remodeled pulp cavity that is rostral to the enamel spot
  52. Describe the progression of the dental star with age.
    transverse brown line that becomes a round dot with age
  53. What is Galvayne's groove?
    brown triangular area on permanent upper third incisor in the middle of the labial surface; still filled with cementum
  54. Describe the age progression associated with Galvayne's groove.
    1st appears at 10 years of age, at 15 years it's halfway down the tooth, at 20 years it reaches the occlusal surface
  55. What are the eruption dates for the lower equine incisors?
    I1- 2.5 years, I2- 3.5 years, I3- 4.5 years; add 6 months for being in wear
  56. What are the eruption dates of equine premolars?
    P1- 1.5 yr, P2- 2.5 yr, P3- 3 yr, P4- 4yr
  57. What are the eruption dates for equine molars?
    M1- 1 yr, M2- 2 yr, M3- 3yr
  58. At about what age is the cup gone on the equine incisors?
    I1- 6 yr, I2- 7 yr, I3-8 yr
  59. What is the 7-year hook?
    hook-like projection on the permanent upper I3 because of a malocclusion; occurs at 7yrs, gone by 9yrs and back at 11yrs
  60. How do you determine the shape change of an equine tooth?
    compare the transverse diameter to the labiolingual diameter
  61. Follow the shape change of I1 throughout the aging process.
    oval when emerges, round at 9 years, triangular at 16 years, rectangular at 18 years
  62. Follow the shape changes of I2 through the aging process.
    oval when it emerges, round at 10 years, triangular at 17 years, rectangular over 19 years
  63. What are points on equine teeth?
    sharp edges on the cheek teeth due to the maxilla being wider than the mandible; can lacerate the gums
  64. Describe the process of floating horse teeth.
    filing down the points on buccal surface of upper cheek teeth and lingual surface of lower cheek teeth
  65. What are the characteristics of deciduous teeth that distinguish them from permanent teeth?
    smaller, shovel-shaped, has distinct neck and constriction of crown and root; wavy with multiple lines (whereas permanent tooth has 1 central line)
  66. What are caps?
    retained deciduous cheek teeth still attached to permanent tooth as it emerges
  67. What are the guidelines for eruption of deciduous teeth in horses?
    • "the rule of 7"
    • 7 days- deciduous I1 erupts
    • 7 weeks- deciduous I2 erupts
    • 7 months- deciduous I3 erupts
  68. Describe the deciduous incisors at one year of age.
    deciduous I1 and I2 are in wear and deciduous I3 has erupted
  69. Describe the deciduous incisors at 2 years of age.
    deciduous I1 and I2 are level and deciduous I3 is in wear
  70. What is the ruminant dental formula?
    2 (I 0/4, C0/0, P 3/3, M 3/3)
  71. What is the dental pad?
    ruminants- hard keratinized tissue pad that replaces the upper incisors.
  72. What do ruminant teeth lack that equine teeth have?
    the infundibulum
  73. When is a ruminant tooth considered level [ie. what does it look like?]?
    once the lingual cusp is round (not wavy anymore)
  74. [Bovine] What are the eruption dates of the incisors?
    • I1- 1.5-2yrs
    • I2- 2-2.5yrs
    • I3- 3-3.5yrs
    • I4- 3.5-4yrs
  75. [Bovine] When are the incisors level?
    • I1- 6yrs
    • I2- 7yrs
    • I3- 8yrs
    • I4- 9yrs
  76. [Small Ruminants] What are the eruption dates for the incisors?
    • I1- 1yr
    • I2- 2yr
    • I3- 3yr
    • I4- 4yr
  77. In ruminants, all incisors are in wear by ___________.
    5 years
  78. By 15yrs in ruminant, if teeth are present, they resemble ___________.