common carotid a. --> external carotid a. --> superficial temporal a. --> cornual a. --> horn
Follow the blood flow to the lip of a bovine.
common carotid a. --> external carotid a. --> linguofacial trunk --> facial a. --> superior labial a. --> lip
Where do you do a nerve block to dehorn a bovine?
inject midway b/w the horn and the lateral canthus at the temporal line
What nerve are you blocking when you do a nerve block prior to dehorning?
What are 2 reasons for failure of anesthesia when doing a nerve block before dehorning a bovine?
cornual n. may take an abnormal path, may have an extra long infratrochlear n. which also needs to be blocked then
What is the epikeras in ruminants?
junction of skin and horn (analogous to periople of foot)
What is the significance of the epikeras in ruminants?
if it is not completely removed, scurs can form
When and why do you perform disbudding in small ruminants?
before 14 days because the bud has not yet rooted to the skull
What nerves innervate the horn in small ruminants?
cornual n. at caudal aspect, branches of infratrochlear n. at cranial aspect
What is different about doing a nerve block prior to disbudding/dehorning a goat (as compared to a bovine)?
must always block the infratrochlear n.
Small ruminants have a ________ frontal sinus than bovines.
Why must you be careful when disbudding small ruminants with a thermal dehorner (as compared to bovines)?
they have a smaller frontal sinus (easier to fry brain) and there is not the extensive overgrowth of the frontal bone and sinus as in the bovine species
What are potential complications of disbudding small ruminants?
if you hold the thermal dehorner on too long, you can cause thermal meningitis (infection of the frontal sinus/ brain); when dehorning older animals, must have proper aftercare because frontal sinus will be exposed
What is the horn gland in goats?
gland at the caudomedial aspect of the base of the horn
What gland do sheep have on their face?
glands of the infraorbital sinus that releases a waxy substance
What is the gutteral pouch?
mucosecretory diverticulum off of the auditory tube
What are the dorsal boundaries of the gutteral pouch?
base of the skull to the atlas
What are the ventral boundaries of the gutteral pouch?
the pharynx and esophagus
What are the compartments of the gutteral pouch and what separates them?
lateral (smaller) and medial (larger) compartments, separated by the stylohyoid bone
What are 4 methods to surgically accessing the gutteral pouch?
Describe the hyovertebrotomy method of accessing the gutteral pouch.
incision midway b/w the ing of the atlas and the stylohyoid bone
Describe the Whitehouse and Modified Whitehouse methods of surgically accessing the gutteral pouch.
Whitehouse- ventral midline incision in the neck/ throat (not used anymore).
Modified Whitehouse- ventral paramedian incision parallel to linguofacial vein.
Why is nasal discharge a clinical sign of gutteral pouch disease?
empyema (pus in body cavity) drains from gutteral pouch through the communication b/w gutteral pouch and pharyngeal opening of auditory tube
Why is epistaxis a clinical sign of gutteral pouch disease?
gutteral pouch infection w/ Aspergillus fungus or other pathogen can cause bleeding from nose because the internal carotid a. is in contact w/ the dorsomedial aspect of the pouch, and it can become eroded and bleed
What is the association b/w the gutteral pouch an the internal carotid a.?
internal carotid a. is in contact w// the dorsomedial aspect of the gutteral pouch
How does gutteral pouch disease cause dysphagia?
difficulty swallowing b/c glossopharyngeal n. and vagus n. (both control swallowing) are closely associated with the membrane of the gutteral pouch
Describe tympany and how it occurs.
air trapped in gutteral pouch; animal has redundant membrane of the gutteral pouch, which prevents air from leaving the gutteral pouch
What is Horner's syndrome?
problem with the sympathetic nervous system, primarily the cranial cervical ganglion, which can be caused by gutteral pouch disease
CN IX and X control _________ and are associated with the __________ of the gutteral pouch.
swallowing; medial aspect
CN XII (hypoglossal n.) is immediately __________ to the linguofacial trunk; CN IX (glossopharyngeal n.) is _________ to the linguofacial trunk.
What vascular structure passes b/w the medial and lateral compartments of the gutteral pouch?
What are 7 aging factors for horses?
eruption dates, shape of tooth, wear pattern, dietary influence, angle of arcade, genetics, whole animal
What is the most accurate aging factor for horses?
eruption date of the lower permenant incisors
What is the equine deciduous dental formula?
i3/3, c0/0, p3/3
What is the equine permanent dental formula?
I3/3, C1/1 (except females), P3 or 4/3, M 3/3)
Describe the premolars in adult horses?
upper first premolar is variable(wolf tooth), lower first premolar is absent
What is the wolf tooth in horses?
vestigial upper first premolar
Describe equine canines and when they erupt.
erupt b/w 3-5 years of age; usually in males only
What is the diastema?
natural or artificial interdental space b/w the canine and first premolar (cheek tooth) also a smaller diastema b/w canine and incisor
3 characteristics of hypsodont teeth.
high crown, roots form late, tooth grows continuously w/ age
3 characteristics of brachydont teeth.
short crown, distinct neck, fully formed root
In horse teeth, the _______ cusp is initially taller than the ________ cusp.
The pulp cavity extends ________ to the infundibulum.
What does the term "in wear" mean? When does it usually occur?
upper and lower incisors come in contact; ~6 months after tooth erupts
________ cusps wear first.
labial (they're taller)
What does the term "level" mean in regards to teeth?
cusps are equally worn
What does "cup gone" mean?
there is no longer a cavity in the infundibulum
What is the "enamel spot"?
cement and enamel in bottom of cup
What is the "dental star"?
secondary deposition of dentine in the remodeled pulp cavity that is rostral to the enamel spot
Describe the progression of the dental star with age.
transverse brown line that becomes a round dot with age
What is Galvayne's groove?
brown triangular area on permanent upper third incisor in the middle of the labial surface; still filled with cementum
Describe the age progression associated with Galvayne's groove.
1st appears at 10 years of age, at 15 years it's halfway down the tooth, at 20 years it reaches the occlusal surface
What are the eruption dates for the lower equine incisors?
I1- 2.5 years, I2- 3.5 years, I3- 4.5 years; add 6 months for being in wear
What are the eruption dates of equine premolars?
P1- 1.5 yr, P2- 2.5 yr, P3- 3 yr, P4- 4yr
What are the eruption dates for equine molars?
M1- 1 yr, M2- 2 yr, M3- 3yr
At about what age is the cup gone on the equine incisors?
I1- 6 yr, I2- 7 yr, I3-8 yr
What is the 7-year hook?
hook-like projection on the permanent upper I3 because of a malocclusion; occurs at 7yrs, gone by 9yrs and back at 11yrs
How do you determine the shape change of an equine tooth?
compare the transverse diameter to the labiolingual diameter
Follow the shape change of I1 throughout the aging process.
oval when emerges, round at 9 years, triangular at 16 years, rectangular at 18 years
Follow the shape changes of I2 through the aging process.
oval when it emerges, round at 10 years, triangular at 17 years, rectangular over 19 years
What are points on equine teeth?
sharp edges on the cheek teeth due to the maxilla being wider than the mandible; can lacerate the gums
Describe the process of floating horse teeth.
filing down the points on buccal surface of upper cheek teeth and lingual surface of lower cheek teeth
What are the characteristics of deciduous teeth that distinguish them from permanent teeth?
smaller, shovel-shaped, has distinct neck and constriction of crown and root; wavy with multiple lines (whereas permanent tooth has 1 central line)
What are caps?
retained deciduous cheek teeth still attached to permanent tooth as it emerges
What are the guidelines for eruption of deciduous teeth in horses?
"the rule of 7"
7 days- deciduous I1 erupts
7 weeks- deciduous I2 erupts
7 months- deciduous I3 erupts
Describe the deciduous incisors at one year of age.
deciduous I1 and I2 are in wear and deciduous I3 has erupted
Describe the deciduous incisors at 2 years of age.
deciduous I1 and I2 are level and deciduous I3 is in wear
What is the ruminant dental formula?
2 (I 0/4, C0/0, P 3/3, M 3/3)
What is the dental pad?
ruminants- hard keratinized tissue pad that replaces the upper incisors.
What do ruminant teeth lack that equine teeth have?
When is a ruminant tooth considered level [ie. what does it look like?]?
once the lingual cusp is round (not wavy anymore)
[Bovine] What are the eruption dates of the incisors?
[Bovine] When are the incisors level?
[Small Ruminants] What are the eruption dates for the incisors?
In ruminants, all incisors are in wear by ___________.
By 15yrs in ruminant, if teeth are present, they resemble ___________.