Anatomy- Thoracic Limb Part 3.txt
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Anatomy- Thoracic Limb Part 3.txt
vetmed equine forelimb
What are the 2 parts of the ulnaris lateralis tendon? What is the difference b/w them?
long tendon, which has a tendon sheath; short tendon, which has no sheath and inserts on the accessory carpal bone
What joints of the carpal share a common fibrous joint capsule?
antebrachiocarpal joint, midcarpal joint, carpometacarpal joint
What joints of the carpus have synovial membranes that communicate with one another?
midcarpal joint and carpometacarpal joint
Which antebrachial muscle has no tendon sheath at all? Why not?
flexor carpi ulnaris; because it inserts directly on the carpal bone
What is the purpose of the synovial tendon sheath?
protects tendon as it slides over carpals
Which two antebrachial muscles have a common tendon sheath? What is it called? Where is it located?
SDF and DDF; carpal sheath; on palmar aspect of carpus
What are the two carpal retinacula? Where are they located?
extensor retinaculum on the dorsal aspect of carpus; flexor retinaculum on the palmar aspect of carpus
The flexor retinaculum is from the _________ to the _________.
accessory carpal bone; medial side on the palmar aspect of the carpus
What structures run through the carpal canal?
SDF tendon, DDF tendon, median a., medial palmar n.
What are the parts of the flexor retinaculum?
outer sheath and inner sheath
What is the deep boundary of the carpal sheath?
palmar carpal ligament
What is the superficial boundary of the carpal canal?
What structures are suspended in the inner sheath of the flexor retinaculum?
flexor carpi radialis tendon, radial a. and v., palmar branch of the median a., lateral palmar n.
The insertion of the common digital extensor.
extensor process of PIII
What ligament (of which muscle) is immediately caudal to the cannon bone?
suspensory ligament of interosseous muscle
The insertion of the suspensory ligament of the interosseous muscle.
splits and inserts on the proximal sesamoids
What is directly beneath the skin on the palmar aspect of the antebrachiocarpal joint?
palmar annular ligament
Describe the 2 digital annular ligaments.
proximal digital annular ligament- X-shaped
distal digital annular ligament- crescent shaped
What is the function of the sesamoidean ligaments?
to stabilize the fetlock joint
Where is the cruciate sesamoidean ligament located?
b/w the proximal sesamoids
The palmar ligament is aka...
What are the 3 sesamoidean ligaments?
oblique, straight, and cruciate sesamoidean ligaments
The oblique sesamoidean ligament is deep to the __________.
Straight sesamoidean ligament
The common digital extensor tendon fuses with the ___(2)___ to insert on the _________.
lateral digital extensor tendon and extensor branch of the suspensory ligament; extensor process of PIII
SDF tendon inserts on the...
distal part of PI and the proximal part of PII
The navicular bursa is b/w...
navicular bone and DDF tendon
The navicular bursa is aka...
What is "Puff"?
accumulation of fluid into the dorsal and palmar joint pouches
What structures are involved with navicular syndrome?
navicular bone, navicular bursa, and DDF tendon
What structure is involved with navicular bursitis?
What is the cause of navicular bursitis?
infection/inflammation caused by a penetrating wound
In what order do the structures of the foot hit the ground during concussion?
What bones are in the shoulder region?
Which bones are location in the brachial region?
Which bones are located in the antebrachial region?
radius and ulna
What bones are located in the manus?
carpal, metacarpal, and phalangeal bones
The _________ is absent in the shoulder of ruminants and horses.
What is unique about the bovine greater tubercle?
it has a bony projection that can bridge over to the lesser tubercle
What is the round bony projection on the lateral aspect of the ruminant humerus?
site of infraspinatus insertion
The ruminant ulna is...
What are the 2 openings b/w the ruminant radius and ulna?
proximal and distal interosseous spaces
What travels through the proximal interosseous space of ruminants?
cranial interosseous a.
Which joint in the equine and ruminant carpus has the greatest range of motion?
Describe a compound joint.
common fibrous joint capsule and each articulation has its own synovial membrane
How many bones are in the ruminant carpus?
6 bones; 4 in the proximal row and 2 in the distal row
What carpal bone is absent in ruminants?
what carpal bones are fused in ruminants?
second and third
The ruminant large metacarpal bone is formed by the...
fusion of the third and fourth metacarpal bones.
Which metacarpal is absent in ruminants?
Which metacarpal is greatly reduced in bovines and absent in small ruminants?
small metacarpal (metacarpal V)
What are the fully developed, weight-bearing digits in ruminants?
digits III and IV
Which digits are vestigial dew claws?
digits II and V
How many proximal and distal sesamoid bones are present in each digit?
each digit has 2 proximal and 1 distal sesamoid
The sesamoid bones are associated with which joint?
proximal sesamoids are at fetlock joint; distal sesamoids are at the coffin joint
What are the bovine interdigital ligaments and what is their purpose?
proximal and distal interdigital ligaments; prevent the digits from spreading apart under the weight of the animal
What interdigital ligaments does the small ruminant have?
distal interdigital ligament (transverse band)
Which interdigital ligament in the bovine can be identified as a cruciate ligament?
the distal interdigital ligament
In the ruminant, the radial a. gives rise to the ___________.
dorsal metacarpal a. III
The principal blood supply to the ruminant digit is via the ___________.
At the interdigital space [ruminant], the median a. becomes the ____________, which divides into the ______________ and ____________.
palmar common digital a. III; palmar proper axial digital a. III; palmar proper axial digital a. IV
The proximal deep palmar arch [ruminant] is formed at the...
The proximal deep palmar arch [ruminant] gives rise to _____________, which subsequently gives rise to ____________ and ___________.
palmar metacarpal aa.; palmar common aa.; proper abaxial aa. of the digits
The common digital aa. give rise to the _________.
proper digital aa.
What are the topographic denominations of the hoof?
toe, quarter, heel
What are the epidermal structures of the wall of the foot?
perioiple, hoof wall, perioplic groove, coronary groove, epidermal laminae, spine of the frog
The thin waxy horn that covers the coronary border of the hoof and serves as a transition from soft skin and hard hoof wall.
The spine of the frog is aka...
What are the epidermal structures of the bottom of the foot?
bulb of heel, base of frog, angle of the wall, angle of the sole, bar, crus of frog, paracuneal sulcus, central sulcus, apex of frog, sole, white line
The paracuneal sulcus is _________ to the _________.
What does the central sulcus correspond to on the inside of the foot?
spine of the frog
The white line of the hoof marks where...
the foot becomes innervated (epidermis is not innervated)
What is the function of the corium?
provides nutrition and sensation to the structures of the foot
Identify the structures of the corium based on location.
perioplic corium, coronary corium, corium of the wall, corium of the bar, corium of the frog, corium of the sole
Identify the structures of the corium based on morphology.
laminar corium (walls, bars), papillary corium (perioplic corium, coronary corium, corium of the frog, corium of the sole)
The _________ forms the bulk of the hoof wall.
The _________ of the epidermis contains laminae.
What are the 3 layer of the epidermis of the hoof wall?
stratum externum, stratum medium, stratum internum
The layer of the hoof wall directly apposed to PIII.
What is the coronary cushion?
thickened hypodermis at the coronary border of the foot
What 3 structures make up the coronary band?
coronary cushion, coronary corium, perioplic corium
inflammation of the laminae of the hoof that causes a pounding digital pulse
severe laminitis that causes separation of primary and secondary epidermal laminae, causing PIII to rotate downward and sometimes rupture through
The cartilage of the hoof attaches to the _____________.
palmar process of the distal phalanx
Where are the venous plexuses of the foot located?
coronary plexus, dorsal plexus, palmar plexus
Dorsal venous plexus of the hoof is aka __________.
What is the most distal portion of the passive stay apparatus?
What are the 2 functions of the compression mechanism of the hoof?
soft tissues of foot compress and squeeze to force blood in plexuses back into venous return, soft tissues absorb shock
What is the passive stay apparatus?
biomechanical construct referring to tendons and ligaments that keep the parts of the limb together
As far as the passive stay apparatus, the serratus ventralis acts as 1000# weight, causing... (4)
shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, carpus over-extension, fetlock over-extension
What is the suspensory apparatus at the distal end of the passive stay apparatus?
sesamoidean ligaments and suspensory ligament preventing over-extension of the fetlock
What is thrush?
inflammation/degeneration of the frog, resulting from infection from standing in urine, soiled sawdust, etc.
What are corns?
bruises at the angle of the sole
What is quittor?
infection of the hoof cartilage that may result in necrosis is severe enough
What is sidebone?
ossification of the hoof cartilage
What is a digital neurectomy?
cutting digital nerves to treat chronic lameness; not recommended anymore
What is the significance of the ligament of ergot?
sometimes with a digital neurectomy, the surgeon accidentally cuts ligament of ergot instead of medial and lateral digital nn., which is BAD and does not resolve lameness
_______ laminae are present in ruminants; ________ are not.
What is the axial groove the junction of in ruminant foot?
wall and bulb on the inner surface of the claw
Describe ruminant dewclaws.
on the palmar surface of the fetlock; do NOT have any osseous development
What are interdigital glands and in which species are they found?
gland formed by an invagination of skin which opens on the dorsal part of the interdigital cleft; may be used to mark territory; sheep