Anatomy- Thoracic Limb Part 3.txt

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Mawad
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299794
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Anatomy- Thoracic Limb Part 3.txt
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2015-04-02 21:00:57
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vetmed equine forelimb
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  1. What are the 2 parts of the ulnaris lateralis tendon? What is the difference b/w them?
    long tendon, which has a tendon sheath; short tendon, which has no sheath and inserts on the accessory carpal bone
  2. What joints of the carpal share a common fibrous joint capsule?
    antebrachiocarpal joint, midcarpal joint, carpometacarpal joint
  3. What joints of the carpus have synovial membranes that communicate with one another?
    midcarpal joint and carpometacarpal joint
  4. Which antebrachial muscle has no tendon sheath at all? Why not?
    flexor carpi ulnaris; because it inserts directly on the carpal bone
  5. What is the purpose of the synovial tendon sheath?
    protects tendon as it slides over carpals
  6. Which two antebrachial muscles have a common tendon sheath? What is it called? Where is it located?
    SDF and DDF; carpal sheath; on palmar aspect of carpus
  7. What are the two carpal retinacula? Where are they located?
    extensor retinaculum on the dorsal aspect of carpus; flexor retinaculum on the palmar aspect of carpus
  8. The flexor retinaculum is from the _________ to the _________.
    accessory carpal bone; medial side on the palmar aspect of the carpus
  9. What structures run through the carpal canal?
    SDF tendon, DDF tendon, median a., medial palmar n.
  10. What are the parts of the flexor retinaculum?
    outer sheath and inner sheath
  11. What is the deep boundary of the carpal sheath?
    palmar carpal ligament
  12. What is the superficial boundary of the carpal canal?
    flexor retinaculum
  13. What structures are suspended in the inner sheath of the flexor retinaculum?
    flexor carpi radialis tendon, radial a. and v., palmar branch of the median a., lateral palmar n.
  14. The insertion of the common digital extensor.
    extensor process of PIII
  15. What ligament (of which muscle) is immediately caudal to the cannon bone?
    suspensory ligament of interosseous muscle
  16. The insertion of the suspensory ligament of the interosseous muscle.
    splits and inserts on the proximal sesamoids
  17. What is directly beneath the skin on the palmar aspect of the antebrachiocarpal joint?
    palmar annular ligament
  18. Describe the 2 digital annular ligaments.
    • proximal digital annular ligament- X-shaped
    • distal digital annular ligament- crescent shaped
  19. What is the function of the sesamoidean ligaments?
    to stabilize the fetlock joint
  20. Where is the cruciate sesamoidean ligament located?
    b/w the proximal sesamoids
  21. The palmar ligament is aka...
    intersesamoidean ligament
  22. What are the 3 sesamoidean ligaments?
    oblique, straight, and cruciate sesamoidean ligaments
  23. The oblique sesamoidean ligament is deep to the __________.
    Straight sesamoidean ligament
  24. The common digital extensor tendon fuses with the ___(2)___ to insert on the _________.
    lateral digital extensor tendon and extensor branch of the suspensory ligament; extensor process of PIII
  25. SDF tendon inserts on the...
    distal part of PI and the proximal part of PII
  26. The navicular bursa is b/w...
    navicular bone and DDF tendon
  27. The navicular bursa is aka...
    bursa podotrohlearis
  28. What is "Puff"?
    accumulation of fluid into the dorsal and palmar joint pouches
  29. What structures are involved with navicular syndrome?
    navicular bone, navicular bursa, and DDF tendon
  30. What structure is involved with navicular bursitis?
    navicular bursa
  31. What is the cause of navicular bursitis?
    infection/inflammation caused by a penetrating wound
  32. In what order do the structures of the foot hit the ground during concussion?
    • 1st- frog
    • 2nd- heel
    • 3rd- bar
    • 4th- quarter
    • 5th- toe
    • 6th-laminae
    • 7th-periosteum
    • 8th-distal phalanx
  33. What bones are in the shoulder region?
    scapula
  34. Which bones are location in the brachial region?
    humerus
  35. Which bones are located in the antebrachial region?
    radius and ulna
  36. What bones are located in the manus?
    carpal, metacarpal, and phalangeal bones
  37. The _________ is absent in the shoulder of ruminants and horses.
    clavical
  38. What is unique about the bovine greater tubercle?
    it has a bony projection that can bridge over to the lesser tubercle
  39. What is the round bony projection on the lateral aspect of the ruminant humerus?
    site of infraspinatus insertion
  40. The ruminant ulna is...
    completely formed
  41. What are the 2 openings b/w the ruminant radius and ulna?
    proximal and distal interosseous spaces
  42. What travels through the proximal interosseous space of ruminants?
    cranial interosseous a.
  43. Which joint in the equine and ruminant carpus has the greatest range of motion?
    antebrachiocarpal joint
  44. Describe a compound joint.
    common fibrous joint capsule and each articulation has its own synovial membrane
  45. How many bones are in the ruminant carpus?
    6 bones; 4 in the proximal row and 2 in the distal row
  46. What carpal bone is absent in ruminants?
    first
  47. what carpal bones are fused in ruminants?
    second and third
  48. The ruminant large metacarpal bone is formed by the...
    fusion of the third and fourth metacarpal bones.
  49. Which metacarpal is absent in ruminants?
    second
  50. Which metacarpal is greatly reduced in bovines and absent in small ruminants?
    small metacarpal (metacarpal V)
  51. What are the fully developed, weight-bearing digits in ruminants?
    digits III and IV
  52. Which digits are vestigial dew claws?
    digits II and V
  53. How many proximal and distal sesamoid bones are present in each digit?
    each digit has 2 proximal and 1 distal sesamoid
  54. The sesamoid bones are associated with which joint?
    proximal sesamoids are at fetlock joint; distal sesamoids are at the coffin joint
  55. What are the bovine interdigital ligaments and what is their purpose?
    proximal and distal interdigital ligaments; prevent the digits from spreading apart under the weight of the animal
  56. What interdigital ligaments does the small ruminant have?
    distal interdigital ligament (transverse band)
  57. Which interdigital ligament in the bovine can be identified as a cruciate ligament?
    the distal interdigital ligament
  58. In the ruminant, the radial a. gives rise to the ___________.
    dorsal metacarpal a. III
  59. The principal blood supply to the ruminant digit is via the ___________.
    median a.
  60. At the interdigital space [ruminant], the median a. becomes the ____________, which divides into the ______________ and ____________.
    palmar common digital a. III; palmar proper axial digital a. III; palmar proper axial digital a. IV
  61. The proximal deep palmar arch [ruminant] is formed at the...
    carpal joint.
  62. The proximal deep palmar arch [ruminant] gives rise to _____________, which subsequently gives rise to ____________ and ___________.
    palmar metacarpal aa.; palmar common aa.; proper abaxial aa. of the digits
  63. The common digital aa. give rise to the _________.
    proper digital aa.
  64. What are the topographic denominations of the hoof?
    toe, quarter, heel
  65. What are the epidermal structures of the wall of the foot?
    perioiple, hoof wall, perioplic groove, coronary groove, epidermal laminae, spine of the frog
  66. The thin waxy horn that covers the coronary border of the hoof and serves as a transition from soft skin and hard hoof wall.
    periople
  67. The spine of the frog is aka...
    Frog Stay
  68. What are the epidermal structures of the bottom of the foot?
    bulb of heel, base of frog, angle of the wall, angle of the sole, bar, crus of frog, paracuneal sulcus, central sulcus, apex of frog, sole, white line
  69. The paracuneal sulcus is _________ to the _________.
    lateral; frog
  70. What does the central sulcus correspond to on the inside of the foot?
    spine of the frog
  71. The white line of the hoof marks where...
    the foot becomes innervated (epidermis is not innervated)
  72. What is the function of the corium?
    provides nutrition and sensation to the structures of the foot
  73. Identify the structures of the corium based on location.
    perioplic corium, coronary corium, corium of the wall, corium of the bar, corium of the frog, corium of the sole
  74. Identify the structures of the corium based on morphology.
    laminar corium (walls, bars), papillary corium (perioplic corium, coronary corium, corium of the frog, corium of the sole)
  75. The _________ forms the bulk of the hoof wall.
    stratum medium
  76. The _________ of the epidermis contains laminae.
    stratum internum
  77. What are the 3 layer of the epidermis of the hoof wall?
    stratum externum, stratum medium, stratum internum
  78. The layer of the hoof wall directly apposed to PIII.
    hypodermis
  79. What is the coronary cushion?
    thickened hypodermis at the coronary border of the foot
  80. What 3 structures make up the coronary band?
    coronary cushion, coronary corium, perioplic corium
  81. Describe laminitis.
    inflammation of the laminae of the hoof that causes a pounding digital pulse
  82. Describe founder's.
    severe laminitis that causes separation of primary and secondary epidermal laminae, causing PIII to rotate downward and sometimes rupture through
  83. The cartilage of the hoof attaches to the _____________.
    palmar process of the distal phalanx
  84. Where are the venous plexuses of the foot located?
    coronary plexus, dorsal plexus, palmar plexus
  85. Dorsal venous plexus of the hoof is aka __________.
    parietal plexus
  86. What is the most distal portion of the passive stay apparatus?
    suspensory apparatus
  87. What are the 2 functions of the compression mechanism of the hoof?
    soft tissues of foot compress and squeeze to force blood in plexuses back into venous return, soft tissues absorb shock
  88. What is the passive stay apparatus?
    biomechanical construct referring to tendons and ligaments that keep the parts of the limb together
  89. As far as the passive stay apparatus, the serratus ventralis acts as 1000# weight, causing... (4)
    shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, carpus over-extension, fetlock over-extension
  90. What is the suspensory apparatus at the distal end of the passive stay apparatus?
    sesamoidean ligaments and suspensory ligament preventing over-extension of the fetlock
  91. What is thrush?
    inflammation/degeneration of the frog, resulting from infection from standing in urine, soiled sawdust, etc.
  92. What are corns?
    bruises at the angle of the sole
  93. What is quittor?
    infection of the hoof cartilage that may result in necrosis is severe enough
  94. What is sidebone?
    ossification of the hoof cartilage
  95. What is a digital neurectomy?
    cutting digital nerves to treat chronic lameness; not recommended anymore
  96. What is the significance of the ligament of ergot?
    sometimes with a digital neurectomy, the surgeon accidentally cuts ligament of ergot instead of medial and lateral digital nn., which is BAD and does not resolve lameness
  97. _______ laminae are present in ruminants; ________ are not.
    primary; secondary
  98. What is the axial groove the junction of in ruminant foot?
    wall and bulb on the inner surface of the claw
  99. Describe ruminant dewclaws.
    on the palmar surface of the fetlock; do NOT have any osseous development
  100. What are interdigital glands and in which species are they found?
    gland formed by an invagination of skin which opens on the dorsal part of the interdigital cleft; may be used to mark territory; sheep

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