Bacteriology- Bacterial Diagnosis Prevention and Treatment.txt

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Bacteriology- Bacterial Diagnosis Prevention and Treatment.txt
2015-04-02 21:01:19
vetmed bacteriology

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  1. What morphological properties used to diagnose bacterial infection?
    shape, arrangement, gram stain, acid-fast stain, motility test
  2. What bacteria stain with acid-fast stain?
  3. What are 2 motility tests used to evaluate motility of bacteria?
    hanging-drop, soft agar motility media
  4. What might you observe as biochemical characteristics of the mode of carbohydrate utilization?
    lactose utilization
  5. What reactions do you analyze in gram-positive bacteria while evaluating biochemical characteristics?
    catalase reaction (presence of gas bubbles)
  6. What reactions do you observe in gram-negative bacteria when evaluating biochemical characteristics?
    oxidase reactions (dye changes from colorless to blue when oxidized)
  7. What is the test to evaluate biochemical characteristics of plasma protein fibrinogen being converted to fibrin?
    coagulase test
  8. Test to identify serovars, strains of certain bacteria.
    antigen analysis
  9. What Ag do you evaluate when performing antigen analysis?
    • K-Ag: capsule
    • O-Ag: LPS
    • H-Ag: flagella
    • Pili Ag
  10. How is PCR used to identify bacteria?
    amplifies DNA of bacteria, which can then be sequences
  11. What is non-selective media?
    blood agar media
  12. Performing a(n) _____________ susceptibility test can help to ID bacteria.
  13. What are 3 types of serologic tests that can be performed to identify bacteria?
    ELISA, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), complement fixation test (CF)
  14. What are 2 types of selective media?
    MacConkey Agar, Mannitol salt agar
  15. What are 4 methods for distinguishing closely-related bacteria?
    carbohydrate usage, oxidase reactions, catalase reactions, and coagulase test
  16. The catalase reaction is used to distinguish __________ from __________.
    staphylococcus (catalase +); streptococcus (catalase -)
  17. Oxidase reactions are used to distinguish ___________ from __________.
    Enterobacteriaceae (oxidase -); Pasturellaceae (oxidase +)
  18. 3 methods of preventing bacterial spread; "a guide for accredited veterinarians (USDA)".
    sterilization, disinfection, antispesis
  19. The coagulase test is used to identify virulent strains of staphylococcus.
    coagulase test
  20. 3 heat methods for sterilization and disinfections.
    autoclave, baking, incineration
  21. 4 ways to achieve sterilization, disinfection, and asepsis.
    heat, radiation, filtration, and chemical agents
  22. What sterilizing gas is used as a chemical agent for sterilization?
    ethylene oxide
  23. What halogens are commonly used to disinfect?
    chlorines, iodines
  24. 2 chemical agents used for sterilization and disinfection?
    formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde gas
  25. Protective immunity established by challenge of the vaccinated host for which the vaccine is intended with the respected pathogen under conditions resembling those of natural infection; protection from clinical disease or protection from infection by the pathogen.
    solid protection
  26. 4 qualities that would ideally be produced by a vaccine.
    solid protection, long-lasting, lack of adverse reaction, quick development of immunity
  27. Live attenuated bacterial vaccines have limited ________________ thereby inducing immune response comparable with that seen after natural infection; a single dose will....
    multiplication in vivo; induce lifelong immunity
  28. What are 4 requirements for attenuated vaccines?
    organism must be capable of establishing infection, organisms should have lost capacity to produce anything but the mildest of disease symptoms, attenuated microorganisms propensity for spread should be as low as possible, organism should be very stable genetically and virtually incapable f reverting back to virulent form
  29. Bacterins are effective in inducing ____________.
    humoral immune response
  30. 4 examples of bacterins used to vaccinate.
    clostridial bacterins, campylobacter, pertussis, brucella
  31. Parenteral administration of ________ induced humeral antibodies that prevent the clinical manifestation of Clostridium diphtheriae infections.
  32. Inactivated bacterial exotoxins.
  33. 4 methods for diagnosing obligate intracellular bacteria.
    Cytology, culture, serology, PCR
  34. Structural analogues of PABA, an essential metabolite in the synthesis of folic acid, which is required in the synthesis of purines; antimicrobial.
  35. Penicillin and cephalosporins are inhibitors of...
    cell wall synthesis.
  36. Aminoglycosides and streptomycin are inhibitors of __________.
    protein synthesis
  37. Tetracyclines bind to the ________ of bacteria.
    30S ribosomal subunit
  38. Chloramphenicol binds to the ___________ of bacteria.
    50S ribosomal subunit
  39. Erythromycins bind to the ___________ of bacteria.
    50S ribosomal subunit
  40. Polymyxin B inhibits _______________.
    membrane function
  41. Quinolones and rifampin are inhibitors of ______________.
    nucleic acid synthesis
  42. Isonazid inhibits ______________.
    synthesis of mycolic acids