Bio 201 Practice test, the Nervous System

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ChathamBio502
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299828
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Bio 201 Practice test, the Nervous System
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2016-03-18 17:33:46
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Nervous system
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Anatomy and function of the nervous system
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  1. True or false (if false, provide the correction information):
    Cerebrospinal fluid is located in the subarachnoid space in the vertebral column, but between the periosteal and meningeal dura mater in the cranium.
    FALSE. It is located in the subarachnoid space in both locations.
  2. True or false (if false, provide the correction information):
    The cranial nerves are part of the CNS
    FALSE. Cranial nerves are part of the PNS, although they are largely confined to the head and neck.
  3. True or false (if false, provide the correction information):
    The best place to extract CSF is in the thoracic region.
    FALSE. The best place is inferior to LII, down to LV. This is because the spinal cord ends around LI/LII and the size of the intervertebral spaces increases from LI to LV. This combination makes it less likely that an injection needle will hit the spinal cord, and makes it easier to access the dural sac, deep to the vertebrae.
  4. True or false (if false, provide the correction information):
    General somatic afferent impulses travel out from the spinal cord to the target structure by passing through the ventral root.
    Everything about this is false. Afferent impulses originate outside of the CNS, at the target structure in the body. So they do not travel out from the spinal cord, they travel IN to the spinal cord. And since we are discussing afferent impulses, these impulses are conducted through the dorsal root because sensory neurons are located in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord.
  5. True or false (if false, provide the correction information):
    General visceral efferent impulses target the skin.
    FALSE. Visceral impulses target smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, organs, organ systems and glands. General somatic efferent (and afferent) impulses target the skin.
  6. Explain why afferent impulses leave the spinal cord via the dorsal root and efferent impulses leave the spinal cord via the ventral root.
    Afferent neurons are located in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord. Specifically, afferent cell bodies are located in the posterior horns of the gray matter and afferent axons are located in the posterior columns of the white matter. The dorsal root is connected to the posterior aspect of the spinal cord, right next to the afferent neurons. Since they are located close to one another, and because all impulses will leave the spinal cord by taking the easiest route, afferent impulses exit the spinal cord through the dorsal root.

    Efferent neurons are located in the anterior aspect of the spinal cord. Specifically, somatic efferent cell bodies are located in the anterior horn of the gray matter and somatic efferent axons are located in the anterior columns of the white matter. Visceral efferent cell bodies are located in the lateral horn of the gray matter and the axons are located in the lateral columns of the white matter. Because impulses leave the spinal cord by taking the easiest route, and all efferent neurons are located in the anterior aspect of the spinal cord, they will travel via the ventral root.
  7. 1A) Describe the path for a general somatic efferent impulse between extensor carpi ulnaris and the CNS. Provide:
    a) the type of impulse is being conducted (motor v sensory)
    b) the start and end points
    c) the root and ramus the impulse travels

    1B) Which nerve in the brachial plexus innervates this muscle? How do you know this?
    • 1A)
    • a) motor impulse from skeletal muscle 
    • b) starts in CNS, ends at the muscle
    • c) exits spinal cord via ventral root, continues out via anterior ramus because all motor impulses leave the CNS via the ventral root and since it is targeting a limb muscle, the impulse continues out via the ventral ramus

    1B) the radial nerve (or a branch thereof) innervates extensor carpi ulnaris. We know this b/c this muscle is in the posterior forearm and therefore is innervated by a nerve carrying fibers from the posterior division of the brachial plexus. The radial nerve is the only nerve that carries posterior fibers, so ECU has to be innervated by the radial nerve.
  8. a) pick a muscle that flexes the forearm
    b) provide two requirements for muscles that are able to flex the forearm
    c) list the nerve(s) that may innervate the muscle you selected and explain your answer
    Your answers will vary depending on the muscle selected. Below, I have grouped responses based on innervation.

    • Option 1:
    • a) brachioradialis
    • b) has to cross the elbow, has to cross the elbow anteriorly
    • c) radial nerve because brachioradialis is in the posterior forearm and all muscles in the posterior forearm are innervated by the radial nerve

    • Option 2:
    • a) brachialis
    • b) has to cross the elbow, has to cross the elbow anteriorly
    • c) musculocutaneous nerve b/c brachialis is a muscle in the anterior arm and all of the muscles in the anterior arm are innervated by musculocutaneous nerve

    • Option 3:
    • a) pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus
    • b) has to cross the elbow, has to cross the elbow anteriorly
    • c) ulnar nerve or median nerve because these muscles are in the anterior forearm and median and/or ulnar innervate all of the muscles in the anterior forearm
  9. 1A) Describe the impulse path an impulse between a sweat gland in the leg going into the CNS. Provide:
    a) the type of impulse is being conducted
    b) the root and ramus the impulse travels
    • a) general visceral afferent (sensory) b/c it is traveling INTO the CNS and visceral b/c it is from a gland, which is a visceral structure
    • b) travels in from the anterior ramus b/c it is from a gland in the leg and the impulse continues along the dorsal root b/c all sensory impulses travel via the dorsal root
  10. Select the correct answer from the options below:
    a) there are 31 spinal nerves
    b) anterior and posterior rami contribute to the formation of nerve plexuses
    c) there are five somatic plexuses in the body
    d) there are 14 cranial nerves
    e) cranial nerves are a part of the CNS
    A
  11. Select the correct answer from the options below:
    a) the musculocutaneous nerve innervates structures in the anterior forearm
    b) the median nerve innervates structures in the anterior forearm
    c) the radial nerve innervates structures in the anterior forearm
    d) the ulnar nerve innervates structures in the posterior forearm
    e) the ulnar nerve innervates structures in the anterior arm
    B
  12. Select the correct answer from the options below regarding the brachial plexus
    a) fibers from C5, C6 and C7 converge to form the superior trunk
    b) fibers from C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 contribute to the formation of the posterior cord
    c) the medial trunk contains fibers only from C8
    d) the lateral cord contains fibers from the anterior division of the superior trunk and from the posterior division of the inferior trunk
    e) the median nerve contains fibers only from C5, C6, C7, and C8
    B
  13. Select the correct answer from the options below:
    a) the sciatic nerve (or its branches) innervates the anterior compartment of the thigh
    b) the obturator nerve (or its branches) innervates the anterior compartment of the thigh
    c) the femoral nerve (or its branches) innervates the anterior compartment of the thigh
    d) the femoral nerve (or its branches) innervates the anterior compartment of the leg
    e) the inferior gluteal nerve innervates the posterior compartment of the thigh
    C
  14. Provide the spinal levels that make up the following plexuses:
    a) the brachial plexus
    b) the lumbar plexus
    c) the scaral plexus
    • a) C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1
    • b) T12, L1, L2, L3, L4
    • c) L4, L5, S1, S2, S3, S4
  15. a) pick a muscle that flexes the thigh
    b) provide two requirements for muscles that are able to flex the thigh
    c) list the plexus that innervates your muscle
    d) what type of joint is involved in hip flexion? 
    e) give two characteristics of this joint type
    • a) sartorius, rectus femoris, iliacus, psoas major
    • b) has to cross the hip, has to cross the hip anteriorly
    • c) lumbar plexus
    • d) synovial joint ball and socket joint
    • e) lots of options: lined with a serous membrane, joint surfaces enclosed by fibrous membrane, articulating surfaces covered in hyaline cartilage, joint capsule filled with synovial fluid, synovial fluid produced by synovial membrane, this joint type permits a large range of motion, etc...
  16. Match the action with the impulse type:
    ACTIONS
    A) chewing an apple
    B) pain in your rectus abdominus muscle
    C) finger abduction
    D) tasting an apple
    E) feeling full of food after a large meal
    F) sweat production in your legs

    IMPULSE TYPE
    1) general visceral afferent
    2) special afferent
    3) general somatic efferent
    4) general visceral efferent
    5) special visceral efferent
    6) general somatic afferent
    • A-5
    • B-6
    • C-3
    • D-2
    • E-1
    • F-4
  17. Quick question:
    What structures are formed by the separation of cranial dura mater?
    Dural venous sinuses and dural partitions
  18. Which nerve conducts taste from the anterior part of the tongue and what type of impulse is this?
    Facial nerve (CN VII), special afferent
  19. What are the special senses and which impulse type innervates them?
    taste, hearing, balance, sight, smell. innervated by special afferent impulses.
  20. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):

    The motor impulse to the splenius capitus muscle travels through the anterior ramus.
    FALSE, it travels through the posterior ramus b/c splenius capitus is a muscle in the neck
  21. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    Cranial nerve I conducts sensory information for sight.
    FALSE. CN I is the olfactory nerve, which conducts special afferent for smell. The optic nerve (CN II) conducts special afferent for sight.

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