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What are the plausible reasons for the belief that the mind is in the same place as the heart?
- Fear and emotion increase heart rate: increased amygdala activity increases heart rate during emotional processing- Yang et al, 2008 (showed facial expressions varying in fear)
- Damage to the heart is often fatal (heart disease is #1 cause of death in the US according to Medicalnewstoday (2014))
- The heart is at the centre of the body and develops first
Who first proposed that the mind was in the brain?
- Galen(2nd century AD)
- Traced nerves to the brain and realised they were related to sensations in the body
- Touched hot brain and severed nerves in animals and affected nerves
- Also noted that age and time changed the appearance
- Stated that the soul (animus) flowed through ventricles
Who proposed the theory of humours?
Bloody Galen again (AD130)
What are the fundaments of the humour theory?
- 4 temperaments linked to amount of bodily fluids
- Black Bile (earth): Melancholic temperament (quiet, pessimistic, anxious, moody etc)
- Yellow Bile (fire): Choleric temperament (Touchy, restless, impulsive, active and optimistic)
- Phlegm (water): Phlegmatic temperament (passive, thoughtful, reliable and calm)
- Blood (air): Sanguine temperament (Carefree, talkative, outgoing, lively and sociable)
- Eysenck (1985)
- This echoes modern neuroscience (serotonin levels)
Who came up with the theory of Cartesian Dualism
- Inspired by 17th automata
- Believed the soul and brain interacted around the pineal gland with the soul flowing through ventricles and the nerves connected to it
Who argued with the notion of cartesian dualism?
- Willis and Steno in the sixteen hundreds
- Tensed muscle in a tube of water
- If nerve transmission was the movement of fluids, the water level should rise
- Newton believed it was vibrations due to observation of how vibrations transmit information
Who pioneered the concept of brain regions being responsible for certain functions?
- Franz Joseph Gall, believed that people with large bulging eyes had better memories due to the fact people hold their heads when thinking
- Together with Swedenborg and Niles Fowler, they pioneered the idea of brain structure of shape being responsible for functions
Who investigated Phrenology?
- Francis Galton (1796)
- Used statistical method to investigate brain shape and personality measuring several thousand people
- Believed the brain was composed of 27 different organs and enlarged organs meant extensive use
- These organs related to personality traits and lifestyle such as religiousness and destructiveness
- Three types of shape:
- Good/intellectual type:
- Women of good intellect type:
- Murders and suicides type: large and long heads, insignificant development of frontal lobes, large central loves. Indentations above the ear correlate with destructiveness