Where is my Mind?

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Where is my Mind?
2015-04-03 16:04:09
Psychology,Evidence & Enquiry
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  1. What are the plausible reasons for the belief that the mind is in the same place as the heart?
    • Fear and emotion increase heart rate: increased amygdala activity increases heart rate during emotional processing- Yang et al, 2008 (showed facial expressions varying in fear)
    • Damage to the heart is often fatal (heart disease is #1 cause of death in the US according to Medicalnewstoday (2014))
    • The heart is at the centre of the body and develops first
  2. Who first proposed that the mind was in the brain?
    • Galen(2nd century AD)
    • Traced nerves to the brain and realised they were related to sensations in the body 
    • Touched hot brain and severed nerves in animals and affected nerves 
    • Also noted that age and time changed the appearance 
    • Stated that the soul (animus) flowed through ventricles
  3. Who proposed the theory of humours?
    Bloody Galen again (AD130)
  4. What are the fundaments of the humour theory?
    • 4 temperaments linked to amount of bodily fluids 
    • Black Bile (earth): Melancholic temperament (quiet, pessimistic, anxious, moody etc)
    • Yellow Bile (fire): Choleric temperament (Touchy, restless, impulsive, active and optimistic)
    • Phlegm (water): Phlegmatic temperament (passive, thoughtful, reliable and calm)
    • Blood (air): Sanguine temperament (Carefree, talkative, outgoing, lively and sociable)
    • Eysenck (1985)
    • This echoes modern neuroscience (serotonin levels)
  5. Who came up with the theory of Cartesian Dualism
    • Descartes 
    • Inspired by 17th automata 
    • Believed the soul and brain interacted around the pineal gland with the soul flowing through ventricles and the nerves connected to it
  6. Who argued with the notion of cartesian dualism?
    • Willis and Steno in the sixteen hundreds
    • Tensed muscle in a tube of water 
    • If nerve transmission was the movement of fluids, the water level should rise
    • Newton believed it was vibrations due to observation of how vibrations transmit information
  7. Who pioneered the concept of brain regions being responsible for certain functions?
    • Franz Joseph Gall, believed that people with large bulging eyes had better memories due to the fact people hold their heads when thinking 
    • Together with Swedenborg and Niles Fowler, they pioneered the idea of brain structure of shape being responsible for functions
  8. Who investigated Phrenology?
    • Francis Galton (1796)
    • Used statistical method to investigate brain shape and personality measuring several thousand people
    • Believed the brain was composed of 27 different organs and enlarged organs meant extensive use 
    • These organs related to personality traits and lifestyle such as religiousness and destructiveness
    • Three types of shape: 
    • Good/intellectual type: 
    • Women of good intellect type:
    • Murders and suicides type: large and long heads, insignificant development of frontal lobes, large central loves. Indentations above the ear correlate with destructiveness