Poultry Meat: Broilers and Turkeys

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
299849
Filename:
Poultry Meat: Broilers and Turkeys
Updated:
2015-04-03 17:55:54
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Poultry meat broiler turkey
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Description:
Vet Med - Module 11
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  1. List some of the selection criteria for broilers
    • Rapid growth rate
    • Good food conversion ratio
    • Good skeletal development
    • Good conformation
    • Correct flesh colouring
    • Good liveability
    • Resistance to disease
  2. What type of chicken produces fertile eggs which hatch to produce DO broiler chicks?
    Broiler breeders or parent stock
  3. Why is feed restricted in broiler breeders?
    To control body weight gain and promote fertility
  4. Why is feed restriction a welfare issue?
    As it can lead to frustration, hunger, stereotypic behaviour and pecking
  5. List three ways broiler breeders can improve welfare
    • Scatter feeding
    • Environmental enrichment
    • Bulked up feeding
  6. True or false: DO broiler chicks can be reared in cages or on the floor?
    False - they can only be reared on the floor
  7. What is the initial air temperature for raising DO broiler chicks?
    35°C
  8. What is the usual market weight for a broiler?
    2.2kg
  9. How long does it take broilers to reach market weight?
    ~6 weeks
  10. Describe the diet fed to broilers
    A high protein (23%) starter ration is fed to DO chicks so they grow as much as possible early in life.  The protein content is then reduced during the grower and finisher stages.
  11. What is added to the feed to reduce the risk of getting coccidiosis from the litter floor?
    A coccidiostat
  12. Why is the ration in pellet rather than mash form?
    Improved feed efficiency
  13. List some problems that can occur with incorrect nutrition
    • Fall in growth rate
    • Excess abdominal fat
    • Excess carcass fat
    • Reduction in breast meat yield
    • Increased late mortality
  14. Why is litter put down on the floor?
    To protect the broilers from damage and provide a warm, dry covering to the concrete floor
  15. What problems can arise from poor litter?
    Hock burn, foot pad dermatitis, breast necrosis and blisters.  All lead to downgrading at processing plant.
  16. List three welfare issues associated with broilers
    • Leg disorders resulting in lameness eg tibial dyschondroplasia/foot pad dermatitis and hock lesions
    • Cardiovascular problems - ascites
    • Behavioural restriction due to barren environment
  17. What are the 4 main steps involved in the production of turkey meat?
    Turkey breeders (fertile egg production) --> hatchery (day old 'poults') --> grower farms --> culled and processed
  18. What is the name for a male/female turkey?
    • male = stag or tom
    • female = hen
  19. Why are male and female breeding turkeys usually kept apart?
    As males have been made large and heavy through selective breeding and cannot naturally mate with females
  20. What are the advantages of AI in turkeys?
    Less damage to females, improved fertility and need fewer males per number of females
  21. What are the three types of housing for turkeys?
    Controlled environment, pole barn, free range
  22. What is a pole barn?
    A barn that is open sided with fixed windows on side walls (more suited to temperate climates)
  23. What is the incubation period of an a) turkey b) chicken egg?
    • a) 28 days
    • b) 21 days
  24. What is a day old turkey called?
    A poult
  25. When are turkeys usually culled?
    14-20 weeks (hen-stag)

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