The commercial hatchery and incubation of fertile eggs
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What name is used to specifically describe the parent stock of the broiler chicken?
What name is given to a day old turkey?
What name is given to the specific spot in the egg where fertilisation takes place?
Explain how each of the following components of an egg contribute to the successful development of a chick embryo: a) yolk b) albumen c) chalazae d) shell and shell membranes e) air cell?
- a) provides embryo with nutrients and water
- b) protects embryo from damage and bacterial infection. Also protein source
- c) stabilise the yolk to prevent contact with inside of shell wall
- d) protect embryo, site of gas exchange
- e) provide chick with first breath of air at hatching
Which way up should an egg be placed in an incubator to ensure it hatches properly?
Large end up so the air cell is at he top of the egg
Why are floor eggs not set for hatching?
As they are dirty
What temperature should eggs be stored at before being set for hatching and why?
16-18°C to stop the embryo developing, so all chicks hatch at the same time
Explain the difference between a single stage and multistage incubator
- Single stage - only houses eggs of the same age
- Multistage - houses eggs of different ages
What does candling involve and what can it tell us about a fertilised egg?
Shining a light through the egg to see what is inside. It can tell us if there is an embryo present or not.
Why are eggs turned during storage and during incubation?
To make sure the egg doesn't contact the eggshell which can lead to dehydration and other problems
What are the key parameters which stimulate the chick to start the piping process?
Increased CO2 and decreased O2 concentrations
There are two phases tot eh piping process (internal and external) - what do these mean?
- Internal - chick reaches the air cell and takes its first breath
- External - chick breaks through the shell
What criteria might lead to a chick being downgraded?
Naval, down, physical and nutritional abnormalities
Name two ways in which a vaccine may be delivered to DO chicks in the hatchery
- Spray the chicks down and vaccine is swallowed during preening
- Needle directly below skin of neck
How are DO chicks sexed?
Examining wing feathers - females have longer wing feathers
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