Human Anatomy Chapter 23 Vessels and Circulation

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dahotstuff30
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299883
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Human Anatomy Chapter 23 Vessels and Circulation
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2015-04-03 23:38:37
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vessels veins arteries
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Human Anatomy
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Human Anatomy Chapter 23 Vessels and Circulation
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  1. From the innermost outward, what three layers are found in the walls of both arteries and veins?

    A)tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
    B)tunica adventitia, tunica intima, tunica externa
    C)tunica adventitia, tunica media, tunica externa
    D)tunica interna, tunica intima, tunica externa
    A)tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which tunic contains circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells?

    A)tunica adventitia
    B)tunica interna
    C)tunica media
    D)tunica externa
    C)tunica media
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The areolar connective tissue of the ____________ helps anchor the blood vessel to other structures.

    A)tunica externa
    B)tunica media
    C)tunica intima
    D)tunica interna
    A)tunica externa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The thickest layer of an artery wall is the tunica ____________, but veins have a thicker tunica ____________.

    A)media; intima
    B)media; externa
    C)externa; media
    D)externa; intima
    B)media; externa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Blood leaving the heart enters large, extremely resilient vessels called

    A)venae cavae
    B)elastic arteries
    C)muscular arteries
    D)distributing arteries
    B)elastic arteries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. In contrast to other arteries, arterioles

    A)are only 3 mm in diameter or smaller
    B)sometimes lack an endothelium
    C)have elastic laminae in the tunica media
    D)all of the above
    A)are only 3 mm in diameter or smaller
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. A blood vessel with thin walls, a relatively wide lumen, numerous one-way valves, and a diameter greater than 100 micrometers is

    A)a venule
    B)a vein
    C)an arteriole
    D)an elastic artery
    B)a vein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which vessels have thin walls and small diameters that facilitate rapid diffusion of gases and nutrients between blood and body tissues?

    A)capillaries
    B)arterioles
    C)venules
    D)all of the above
    A)capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Valves in veins serve to

    A)adjust blood pressure by compartmentalizing the venae cavae
    B)counteract the crushing force of surrounding skeletal muscles
    C)release excessive pressure to protect these thin-walled vessels
    D)prevent backflow of blood in the absence of high blood pressure
    D)prevent backflow of blood in the absence of high blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Capillaries do not function independently, but rather form interconnected networks called

    A)thoroughfare channels
    B)sinusoids
    C)fenestrations
    D)capillary beds
    D)capillary beds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. A ring of smooth muscle, the precapillary sphincter, encircles the entrance to each ____________.

    A)postcapillary venule
    B)thoroughfare channel
    C)metarteriole
    D)true capillary
    D)true capillary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following selections is paired incorrectly?

    A)fenestrated capillaries; holes within each endothelial cell
    B)sinusoids; found in bone marrow, the spleen, and the liver
    C)continuous capillaries; complete lining of endothelial cells
    D)continuous capillaries; found in intestinal villi and the kidneys
    D)continuous capillaries; found in intestinal villi and the kidneys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Gaps in their walls and relatively large lumens, along with basement membranes that are either discontinuous or absent, allow ____________ to transport materials as large as proteins or blood cells in and out of the blood very quickly.

    A)continuous capillaries
    B)fenestrated capillaries
    C)sinusoids
    D)all of the above
    C)sinusoids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The word root fenestra most nearly means

    A)to leak
    B)window
    C)to move
    D)hole
    B)window
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. At rest, about 60% of the body’s blood is normally held by the

    A)capillaries
    B)arteries
    C)heart
    D)veins
    D)veins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Compared with those of the systemic circulation, arteries of the pulmonary circulation

    A)have lower blood pressure
    B)have less elastic tissue and wider lumens
    C)carry blood that contains less oxygen
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  17. What are the three main arterial branches that emerge from the aortic arch?

    A)right subclavian artery, brachiocephalic trunk, and left common carotid artery
    B)left and right common carotid arteries and the brachiocephalic trunk
    C)right subclavian artery, brachiocephalic trunk, and left subclavian artery
    D)brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
    D)brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The internal carotid arteries do not

    A)deliver blood to structures of the neck, pharynx, larynx, mandible, and face
    B)enter the skull through the carotid canals of the temporal bone
    C)supply blood to the eyes through branches called the ophthalmic arteries
    D)supply the brain through branches called the anterior and middle cerebral arteries
    A)deliver blood to structures of the neck, pharynx, larynx, mandible, and face
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. What is the name of the anastomosis of arteries surrounding the sella turcica?

    A)cerebral arterial circle
    B)basilar-carotid plexus
    C)cerebral-carotid loop
    D)ring of Williston
    A)cerebral arterial circle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which three arteries branch from the celiac trunk to supply digestive organs?

    A)left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic
    B)superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic
    C)common gastric, left splenic, and hepatic
    D)suprarenal, renal, and lumbar
    A)left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which pair correctly matches an artery with the organ or region it serves?

    A)renal, adrenal gland
    B)lumbar, posterolateral thoracic wall
    C)obturator, medial thigh
    D)hepatic, kidney
    C)obturator, medial thigh
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Veins that drain the head, neck, and upper limbs ultimately merge to form the

    A)superior vena cava
    B)inferior vena cava
    C)jugular veins
    D)subclavian veins
    A)superior vena cava
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which statement accurately describes the azygos vein?

    A)lies along the left side of the thoracic vertebrae
    B)drains blood primarily from the anterior thoracic wall
    C)receives blood from veins on both sides of the vertebrae
    D)descends through the thorax to join the inferior vena cava
    C)receives blood from veins on both sides of the vertebrae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which vein collects most of the blood from the lower limbs, pelvis, perineum, and abdominal structures?

    A)inferior vena cava
    B)common iliac vein
    C)azygos vein
    D)great saphenous vein
    A)inferior vena cava
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The veins of the gastrointestinal tract all merge into some part of the ____________, which shunts the blood to the liver for absorption and processing of transported materials.

    A)gastrointestinal plexus
    B)hepatic anastomosis
    C)hepatic portal system
    D)renal portal system
    C)hepatic portal system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which artery projects from the aortic arch, extending several branches that supply the thoracic wall before changing names inferior to the diaphragm?

    A)descending abdominal aorta
    B)brachiocephalic trunk
    C)internal thoracic artery
    D)descending thoracic aorta
    D)descending thoracic aorta
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. In a fetus, most of the blood is shunted from the right to the left atrium through the
    A)fossa ovalis
    B)ductus arteriosus
    C)foramen ovale
    D)ductus venosus
    C)foramen ovale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Fetal blood is shunted from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta through which of the following?

    A)ductus arteriosus
    B)foramen ovale
    C)ductus venosus
    D)all of the above
    A)ductus arteriosus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The word root varix, as used in “varicose,” appropriately translates as

    A)weakened vessel
    B)dilated vein
    C)painful
    D)lump or knot
    B)dilated vein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Aging adults in the United States may expect which of the following changes in the cardiovascular system?

    A)less resilient heart and blood vessels
    B)higher systolic blood pressure
    C)worsening atherosclerosis
    D)all of the above
    D)all of the above
  31. Which structures are found only in arteries?

    A)internal and external elastic laminae
    B)endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissues
    C)tunica intima and tunica media
    D)tunica externa or adventitia
    A)internal and external elastic laminae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. In terms of both composition and relative position, the ____________ of the heart is most similar to the ____________ of vessel walls.

    A)fibrous pericardium; tunica adventitia
    B)epicardium; tunica externa
    C)myocardium; tunica media
    D)endocardium; tunica intima
    D)endocardium; tunica intima
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Compared with larger arteries, smaller arteries tend to have less ____________ in their walls and more ____________.

    A)epithelial tissue; elastic fibers
    B)adipose tissue; endothelium
    C)elastic tissue; smooth muscle
    D)epithelial tissue; areolar tissue
    C)elastic tissue; smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which type of true capillaries are enveloped, in certain locations, by the perivascular feet of astrocytes?

    A)continuous capillaries
    B)sinusoids
    C)metarterioles
    D)fenestrated capillaries
    A)continuous capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. The cyclical contracting and relaxing of ____________ that alters blood flow through capillary beds about 5-10 times per minute is called ____________.

    A)precapillary sphincters; vasomotion
    B)postcapillary venules; vasoconstriction
    C)metarterioles; vasodilation
    D)thoroughfare channels; vasorotation
    A)precapillary sphincters; vasomotion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Although both are performed by smooth muscle, ____________ raises blood pressure while ____________ primarily affects nutrient delivery.

    A)vasodilation; vasomotion
    B)vasodilation; vasoconstriction
    C)vasoconstriction; vasomotion
    D)vasoconstriction; vasodilation
    C)vasoconstriction; vasomotion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Because, at rest, they hold about ____________ of the body's blood, ____________ function as blood reservoirs.

    A)70%; capillariesD)55%; venules
    B)65%; arterioles
    C)60%; veins
    C)60%; veins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. All of the following are true of companion vessels except

    A)a pair can consist of either arteries or veins, but not both
    B)they supply the same body region and tend to lie next to one another
    C)blood flows through them in opposite directions
    D)one carries oxygenated blood and the other, deoxygenated
    A)a pair can consist of either arteries or veins, but not both
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Diapedesis occurs mostly in which vessels?

    A)postcapillary venules
    B)sinusoids
    C)small veins
    D)fenestrated capillaries
    A)postcapillary venules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. TWhich structures are called the "functional units" of the cardiovascular system?

    A)capillaries
    B)the heart and major vessels
    C)veins
    D)arteries
    A)capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. At any given moment, which cardiovascular components contain the most blood?

    A)all capillaries and arterioles
    B)the heart and systemic arteries
    C)the systemic veins and venules
    D)the entire pulmonary circuit
    C)the systemic veins and venules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. The ____________ are to the walls of large blood vessels as the coronary vessels are to the myocardium.

    A)vasa vasorum
    B)continuous capillaries
    C)fenestrated capillaries
    D)nutrient arteries and veins
    A)vasa vasorum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which of the following carry oxygenated blood only? (1) systemic arteries (2) systemic veins (3) pulmonary arteries (4) pulmonary veins

    A)2 and 3
    B)1 and 4
    C)3 and 4
    D)1 and 3
    B)1 and 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The aorta and its primary branches are all ____________ arteries, as is the pulmonary trunk.

    A)muscular
    B)systemic
    C)pulmonary
    D)elastic
    D)elastic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Of the following arteries, which does not contribute directly to an anastomosis?

    A)ulnar
    B)anterior cerebral
    C)common carotid
    D)dorsalis pedis
    C)common carotid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. An artery with an anastomosis so tiny as to be ineffectual is

    A)an end artery
    B)a nonfunctional artery
    C)a functional end artery
    D)at high risk of developing an aneurysm
    C)a functional end artery
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. In which of the following vessels could blood most likely flow bidirectionally?

    A)facial vein
    B)superior epigastric artery
    C)carotid sinus
    D)superior sagittal sinus
    D)superior sagittal sinus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Upon leaving the capillaries supplied by the celiac and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, blood flows into the

    A)hepatic veins
    B)hepatic sinusoids
    C)inferior vena cava
    D)hepatic portal system
    D)hepatic portal system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Arrange the names given to successive portions of the vessel that continues from the brachiocephalic trunk to supply the right upper limb: (1) radial artery (2) axillary artery (3) brachial artery (4) subclavian artery
    A)4, 2, 3, 1
    B)2, 4, 3, 1
    C)1, 3, 4, 2
    D)3, 4, 1, 2
    A)4, 2, 3, 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The following sequence lists veins carrying a drop of blood from the leg to the heart. Which vein is missing?posterior tibial > popliteal > femoral > common iliac > inferior vena cava

    A)internal iliac
    B)great saphenous
    C)deep femoral
    D)external iliac
    D)external iliac
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. In the fetus, oxygenated blood returning from the placenta is shunted away from the liver by the

    A)ductus arteriosus
    B)posterior cardinal veins
    C)vitelline veins
    D)ductus venosus
    D)ductus venosus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which one of the following is not a postnatal circulatory change?

    A)blood flow stops in the umbilical vessels and they turn into ligaments
    B)increased pressure within the right atrium opens the foramen ovale
    C)the ductus venosus constricts, becoming the ligamentum venosum
    D)pulmonary resistance drops, allowing the pulmonary arteries to dilate
    B)increased pressure within the right atrium opens the foramen ovale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. At birth, the ____________ replaces the hole in the interatrial septum that has the same name as a hole in the sphenoid bone of the skull.

    A)fossa ovalis
    B)ligamentum venosum
    C)ligamentum teres
    D)sinoatrial node
    A)fossa ovalis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. The ductus arteriosus closes at birth, leaving a fibrous remnant, the ligamentum

    A)arteriosum
    B)flavum
    C)nuchae
    D)venosum
    A)arteriosum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What vascular disorder is characterized by altered endothelia and the buildup of fatty plaques in arterial lumens?

    A)hypertension
    B)aneurysm
    C)atherosclerosis
    D)phlebitis
    C)atherosclerosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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