Philosophy 3 Test 1
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Philosophy 3 Test 1
Philosophy 3 Test 1
Greek = Love of Wisdow
Def. = The
pursuit of comprehensive and systematic knowledge about our world - regarding conceptual/theoretical (not empirical) matters
Theory of reality
Theory of knowledge
Theory of value
- Ethics/moral philosophy
Western philosophy beginings
6th and 5th centuries, a transition from mytho-religious thinking
What is the world made of and what holds it up?
change and stasis
the relation between the one and the many
appearance and reality
What is knowledge and how is it possible
how should we live
Earliest questions: in east
- tendency toward materialism
- emphasis on constant, unstable change
Earliest questions: in west
- emphasis on permanence, unchanging reality underlying the sensible world
Happiness or total well-being that is our goal
- the failure of qualitative diversity
- the impossibility of infinite divisibility of matter
1st principle of atomism
there is a plurality of qualitatively indistinguishable atoms, differing quantitatively in size, shape, position and motion = measurables
Said that there are 2 types of knowledge:
Obscure - perception is subjective and private
Genuine - finer knowledge of an objective public world
Reality for atomists
Atoms moving in empty space, which is not nothing
Atomist. Translator of Epicurus
There is no creation out of nothing
Nothing is destroyed
There is empty space
the void is infinite
Democritus on motion
There is an irreducible diversity of motions = eternal jostlings
Epicurus on motion
Perceptually, rest is more natural than motion. But rest is an obstructed fall through space, so really motion is natural. The falling of atoms needs no external cause and has no beginning
Something that Epicurus came up with to explain how the first connection between atoms has occured.
Epicurus on the sensory world
Sense qualities arise from changing combinations of atoms
Democritus on the sensory world
All perception is the subjective result of atoms jostling - it IS atoms moving
Were the first scientist-philosophers
The movement away from the untestibel supernatural explanations to the postulations of theories about the world
What is the world made of?
- Water is the cause of all things. claimed by observation
Apparent diversity (the many) can be reduced intoa real unity (the one)
The cause must be a material thing or stuff (not god)
The ultimate stuff is active/ has an internal principle of change.
Denial of external supernatural agents
Claims that The One is the Boundless
Questions how can water be the one thing, if things that aren't water are water
An infinite, indefinite stuff with no particular or limiting characteristics.
Results from eddies in the reservoir
Questions what the boundless could be.
It exists as one thing, yet it is nothing in particular.
1. the boundless is a grab bag collection of various things, but then it isn't ONE
2. It really is indefinite
Concludes that the one = air
Q:Says how can the one become the many?
: the unifying principle is not a thing, but a pattern or process of orderly change according to the measures
Everything is changing - apparent stasis is unreal. One cannot step in the same river twice
: How does one change into many?
: What is, is. What is not, is not.
What is, is uncreated
What is, is indestructible
- can't change into nothing
What is, is eternal
What is, is unchangeable
- Change is change into what is not, but there is no nothing to disappear into
Zeno of Elea
Monist, defender of Parmenides.
Uses the race cource argument
and achilles and the tortoise argument
The view of knowledge of reality is reached by reason
Knowledge of reality is gained via sense experience
All atomic motions are determined by antecedent motions.
Democritus = no free will cuz above
Epicurus = free choice cuz of swerve
: one/many? motion?
: the world is a plenum, completely full.
Four elements EAFW = pluralism
Empedocles on motion
Motion is possible by displacement, motion is not moving into empty space.
Motion consists of two types:
- Strife = separating
- Love = uniting
The world is made up of many things not one thing because there is change.
: How can what is X become what is not X?
: There is an infinite diversity of qualitatively different infinitely small "seeds"
Anaxagoras on motion
There is only one type, Mind sets all things in order.
Dualist. Was a scientist and a religious teacher.
Pythagorean science focused on mathematics rather than physics.
Had two basic principles = dualist
The limit and the unlimited